Coevolution Genes Culture And Human Diversity Pdf

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coevolution genes culture and human diversity pdf

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In an era of globalization everybody talks about diversity, but how much do you actually know about human nature and human diversity?

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Coevolution Genes, Culture, and Human Diversity - William H. Durham (introducción).pdf

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Culture behaviour based on socially transmitted information is present in diverse animal species, yet how it interacts with genetic evolution remains largely unexplored.

Here, we review the evidence for gene—culture coevolution in animals, especially birds, cetaceans and primates. We describe how culture can relax or intensify selection under different circumstances, create new selection pressures by changing ecology or behaviour, and favour adaptations, including in other species.

Finally, we illustrate how, through culturally mediated migration and assortative mating, culture can shape population genetic structure and diversity.

This evidence suggests strongly that animal culture plays an important evolutionary role, and we encourage explicit analyses of gene—culture coevolution in nature. Social learning is the key ingredient of culture. Animals learn important skills from each other, including what to eat and where to find it, how to recognise and escape predators, and which migratory pathways to take through their environments. These cultural adaptations affect population structures as well as the physical and social environment that elicits genetic evolution.

Thus, cultural behaviour may select for particular functional genes, influence patterns of genetic diversity, and spark speciation. When cultural activity is an important determinant of fitness, it can generate selection for traits that further enhance cultural competencies, allowing genes and culture to coevolve reciprocally Fig. Principal interacting processes of gene—culture coevolution. Many behaviours are transmitted through culture and often give rise to adaptive phenotypic variation and subsequent genetic consequences examples of both are provided.

These changes in genes also feedback on cultural transmission. Orange boxes highlight common mechanisms. Early reviews assumed that non-human cultures were insufficiently stable to affect genetic evolution 1 , 2. However, recent research has established that animal culture is present in insects, birds, fishes and mammals 3 , 4 , that it can have important impacts on fitness e.

Here, we review evidence from across the animal kingdom that the strength and direction of selection, as well as population genetic structure, are influenced by cultural activities in a range of species, not just humans. We define gene—culture coevolution inclusively, as occurring when cultural evolution shapes genetic evolution, often but not always entailing reciprocal interactions between the two.

We compare genetics and culture as systems of inheritance, and explain the different ways in which culture modifies genetic selection. These include how culture may select for particular functional genes, whether in populations, species-wide, or in different species, and how culture shapes the structure and diversity of variation in neutral genes. Although genes are transmitted at conception from parents to offspring, social learning occurs throughout the lifespan, from many different individuals.

Culture thereby allows for the propagation of phenotypic variants among unrelated individuals, often within timespans significantly shorter than a generation e. The stability of cultural transmission can be enhanced through conformity i.

Through eliciting change in behaviour, often across an entire population, culture can transform the social environment, whereas cultural activities e. Culture thus encompasses a range of temporal scales, pathways of information flow and impacts on selection. Cultural transmission has a number of additional properties that affect its role in genetic evolution. Culture provides a highly flexible means to adjust to novel conditions and modify selection. Much of social learning is reliant on phylogenetically ancient and widespread associative learning processes, such as classical and operant conditioning This kind of learning can be applied in an extremely flexible and open-ended manner, including learning from both conspecifics and heterospecifics, which means that animals are not restricted to learning only about environmental features previously encountered by the lineage e.

Instead, animals can also learn about entirely novel stimuli or events, and devise appropriate responses to them e. Via learning, animals can therefore generate adaptive responses to conditions without prior evolution of dedicated traits with suitable reaction norms. In addition to responding appropriately to changing features of their environments, such as the dangers presented by a novel predator, social learning can also generate opportunities for phenotypic change in the absence of any immediate environmental change or stressor e.

Culture typically leads to the production and propagation of adaptive behaviour. Learned behavioural innovations the analogue of mutation are usually not random but rather novel functional solutions tailored to new challenges or hitherto-unexploited opportunities Learned behavioural innovation is now extensively documented in animals 21 , and many such innovations are propagated through social learning e.

Animal social learning is also typically non-random and strategic, with evidence that individuals often disproportionately copy successful individuals and high-payoff behaviour 25 , 26 , enhancing the spread of adaptive variants e. Good information, supporting fitness-enhancing behaviour, is far more likely to be propagated than bad information. These features, most of which are particularly well-documented in vertebrates, mean that phenotypic accommodation through culture has the potential to be common, rapid and powerful.

Cultures can quickly accumulate adaptive features 29 and introduce novelty into phenotype space, generating diverse selection on genes Yet, cultural systems are not typically well-captured by standard population genetic or quantitative genetic models of trait evolution, but instead require dedicated theory 2 , 3 , 13 , 31 , A prima facie confusing feature of culture is that it can both speed up and slow down genetic evolution, but these contrasting effects are now well-understood, thanks to theoretical work 2 , 13 , In stationary, or slowly changing, unimodal fitness landscapes, learning typically slows evolution by reducing phenotypic differences between genotypes 34 , 35 , This explains how cultural species such as humans and, possibly, bottlenose dolphins Tursiops spp.

However, learning usually accelerates evolution in dynamic environments that cannot be tracked effectively by selection of genes 2 , 13 , or in static multimodal fitness landscapes, where the existence of multiple optima means that populations can become trapped on suboptimal fitness peaks.

In the latter case, learning smooths the fitness landscape, increasing the likelihood of a directly increasing path of fitness to the global optimum 33 , 36 , 38 and helping genotypes to locate otherwise difficult-to-find fitness peaks For instance, the dietary traditions of killer whales, Orcinus orca , have favoured population-specific genes influencing morphology and digestion 42 , Social learning can also elicit the selection of genetic adaptation in other traits genetic accommodation.

For instance, mate-choice copying, where the choice of mating partner is influenced by the mate-choice decisions of other individuals, is found in fruit flies, fishes, birds and mammals. Mate-choice copying propagates mating preferences over short time periods, such as a single season, yet population genetic models have shown that it can substantially enhance the strength of sexual selection on male traits 8.

Birdsong provides another illustration of how cultural change, which is rapid at least with respect to rates of genetic change, can nonetheless be consequential for genetic evolution, influencing patterns of migration and assortative mating, and facilitating speciation 44 , 45 , In sum, theoretical work leads to the expectation that genetic accommodation and genetic assimilation in response to culture could be widespread in animal populations, but this has been little investigated.

Further examples of how cultural plasticity can precede and facilitate genetic evolution, and affect evolutionary rates, are considered in more detail in the following section.

Among the processes of gene—culture coevolution, attention has overwhelmingly focussed on relationships between the distributions of functional genes within a population and cultural variants. Correlations are expected if cultural innovations alter the selection regimes for particular genes, as individuals with the same genes can have different fitness in different cultural contexts. Given it is impossible to demonstrate the causes of past episodes of adaptive evolution experimentally, the strongest evidence comes from humans, where extensive genetic sampling can be combined with historical and archaeological data.

For example, the coevolutionary relationship between dairy farming and adult lactase production is well-established More generally, diverse agricultural practices are thought to have inadvertently selected for alleles expressed in enhanced metabolism of the increased starch, carbohydrates, alcohol and so forth, found in agricultural diets 31 , Genomic studies have identified over other variants subject to recent selection for which cultural practices are thought to be the primary source of selection, although the difficulty of demonstrating their causal role precludes certainty Genes associated with the methionine cycle, which is involved in protein synthesis, differ systematically between mammal-eating and fish-eating ecotypes, a contrast presumed to result from different patterns of dietary protein intake Although North Pacific and Antarctic mammal-eating ecotypes both had strong signatures of selection in these groups of genes, the precise locations of the variations were different in the two ecotypes, suggesting independent genetic routes to phenotypic change.

Given the culturally mediated variation in inter-population variation in chimpanzee Pan troglodytes diets 49 , similar culturally initiated genetic variation in digestion may well be found in this species too. Culturally transmitted foraging preferences might also have influenced the evolution of functional genes in great tits 15 , Providing food for these birds is popular in the United Kingdom and recent genomic comparisons of British great tits with those from the Netherlands, where bird feeding is less common, suggest there has been selection on genes involved in beak morphology Birds that use feeding stations have larger beaks, perhaps because these individuals are more effective at breaking open the provided seeds.

Artificial seeding of foraging behaviours in great tits has subsequently demonstrated that detecting and learning how to access bird feeders can spread horizontally and vertically through populations via social learning, enhancing individual learning It is therefore probable that social transmission of information about seed feeders increased their use quickly, and consequently altered selection pressure for beak size in great tits Furthermore, genetic differences within and between populations could affect culture reciprocally; through their positions in social foraging networks 50 , 52 , larger-beaked individuals may be more likely to spread knowledge of new feeding opportunities Although genomic scans suggest large-scale culturally driven selection for genes in recent human evolution, with a few exceptions, such as the dairy farming-lactase case, further work is required to pin down particular instances 46 , A substantial reliance on social learning has been predicted to select for genetic variants that enhance such learning species-wide, shaping supportive neural traits such as encephalisation, energy production or plasticity, or modifying life-history traits such as a longer juvenile period available for learning or enhanced parental support.

These effects may in turn lead to more reliance on culture, potentially creating positive ontogenetic-evolutionary feedback loops shaping gene—culture coevolution. Tests of the cultural intelligence hypotheses have been of two main types. Most common have been cross-species, comparative analyses, addressing the prediction that the scale of cultural inheritance in a species will be associated with selection on supportive phenotypic characters.

For example, Street et al. Evidence of greater proclivity for social learning was predicted by both measures of brain size and of reproductive lifespan. Culture relies not only on social learning but also on intermittent behavioural innovation, and similar comparative analyses have identified relationships between records of innovation and brain size in both primates 64 and birds A second approach is to compare closely related species differing in cultural richness, recently explored in a comparison between orangutan species, in which a more extensive cultural repertoire has been described for the Sumatran Pongo abilii than for the Bornean species P.

Evolutionary effects of culture may explain a further life-history phenomenon, the existence of menopause not only in humans but in whales, where females of matrilineal species may live long after their reproductive span Modelling studies have concluded that menopause can evolve through inclusive fitness benefits Older female killer whales are known to be repositories of such extensive adaptive knowledge Correlational tests of the cultural intelligence hypothesis outlined above have, however, been constrained by relatively crude measures of the scope of cultural intelligence in any given species, often resting on post hoc analysis of publications that report non-standardised measures of social learning.

In future, the field will benefit from the development of more comparable and systematic variables to be applied in such analyses. One difficulty with demonstrating gene—culture coevolution arises when genes and culture are both spread predominantly through transmission from parents to offspring.

When culture changes how species interact, however, it can also influence genetic evolution across species boundaries, removing this potential confound. For example, experimental studies with brood parasitic cuckoos and hosts have established that culture may alter the strength of selection across time differently to when culture is absent.

In reed warblers at least, this socially learned and transmitted information leads to increased detection of cuckoos and strengthens selection against the parasite However, common cuckoo Cuculus canorus females have a colour polymorphism, likely to be an MC1R variant 75 , that defeats host culture. Social learning about cuckoos is not generalised across morphs, so knowledge spreads quickly only about the common form.

In this case, host culture generates a stronger selective advantage for cuckoos that appear different i. Novel behaviours that spread and are maintained through culture also have the potential to initiate, or intensify, selection on interacting species. Another candidate for interspecies gene—culture coevolution lies in the wide array of complex socially learned foraging techniques of killer whales Corkeron and Connor 78 suggest that the seasonal migrations of baleen whales to the tropics may function to avoid killer whale predation.

Although the details of baleen whale migrations seem socially learned 79 , the drive to migrate is likely to have a genetic basis that may have been influenced by the predatory cultures of killer whales.

There are many familiar examples where humans are the cultural species; these include the industrial revolution increasing selection for melanic forms of peppered moths Biston betularia 80 , and the rise of agriculture facilitating coevolution of novel pathogens with humans 81 , Although evidence for non-human culture altering selection in other species is at present limited, in theory this could influence any type of interaction where social learning in at least one party occurs.

The onset of a new foraging culture could also rapidly shift selection on host microbiomes as they adapt to a novel resource, or influence transmission of microbial communities

Coevolution: Genes, Culture, and Human Diversity

Dual inheritance theory DIT , also known as gene—culture coevolution or biocultural evolution , [1] was developed in the s through early s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution. Genes and culture continually interact in a feedback loop, [2] changes in genes can lead to changes in culture which can then influence genetic selection, and vice versa. One of the theory's central claims is that culture evolves partly through a Darwinian selection process, which dual inheritance theorists often describe by analogy to genetic evolution. Most of the modelling done in the field relies on the first dynamic copying though it can be extended to teaching. Social learning at its simplest involves blind copying of behaviors from a model someone observed behaving , though it is also understood to have many potential biases , including success bias copying from those who are perceived to be better off , status bias copying from those with higher status , homophily copying from those most like ourselves , conformist bias disproportionately picking up behaviors that more people are performing , etc..

Don't have an account? Humans shared a last common ancestor with the chimpanzee and the bonobo at least 7 million years ago. The hominin clade has included many species, some of which will have co-existed. Few are in direct ancestral relationship to Homo sapiens. Humans are distinguished from the other great apes by specific physical bipedalism, brain size, hairlessness and cultural tool making, language, society traits. Modern humans evolved in Africa and spread across the world, adapting locally to the selective pressures of the climates, food sources, and pathogens that they encountered. Recent human cultural evolution has to a large extent insulated our biology from the selective pressures of the environment, although pandemic diseases may represent an exception.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Zegura and W. Zegura , W. Charles Darwin's On the Origins of Species had two principal goals: to show that species had not been separately created and to show that natural selection had been the main force behind their proliferation and descent from common ancestors. In Coevolution, the author proposes a powerful new theory of cultural evolution--that is, of the descent with modification of the shared conceptual systems we call cultures--that is parallel in many ways to Darwin's theory of organic evolution.

Coevolution Genes, Culture, and Human Diversity - William H. Durham (introducción).pdf

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Dual inheritance theory

Но, увидев прислужника в конце ряда и два людских потока, движущихся по центральному проходу к алтарю, Беккер понял, что происходит. Причастие. Он застонал. Проклятые испанцы начинают службу с причастия. ГЛАВА 92 Сьюзан начала спускаться по лестнице в подсобное помещение.

Мидж Милкен явно чего-то не поняла. - Это многое объясняет, - настаивала.  - Например, почему он провел там всю ночь.

Никто ни в чем его не обвинит. Он сам расскажет о том, что случилось. Все люди умирают… что значит еще одна смерть. ГЛАВА 91 В соборе всегда ночь. Тепло дня здесь сменяется влажной прохладой, а шум улицы приглушается мощными каменными стенами.

Я люблю. Без воска, Дэвид.

 Я ухожу, но директору эти цифры нужны к его возвращению из Южной Америки. То есть к понедельнику, с самого утра.  - Она бросила пачку компьютерных распечаток ему на стол.

 Мидж. Скорее. ГЛАВА 44 Фил Чатрукьян, киля от злости, вернулся в лабораторию систем безопасности. Слова Стратмора эхом отдавались в его голове: Уходите немедленно.

А потом мы позвоним директору. - Замечательно.  - Он даже застонал.

ТРАНСТЕКСТ не может с ним справиться. Сьюзан подумала о Стратморе, о том, как мужественно он переносит тяжесть этого испытания, делая все необходимое, сохраняя спокойствие во время крушения. Иногда она видела в нем что-то от Дэвида. У них было много общего: настойчивость, увлеченность своим делом, ум.

Он явно не верил своим ушам. - Dov'ela plata. Где деньги. Беккер достал из кармана пять ассигнаций по десять тысяч песет и протянул мотоциклисту. Итальянец посмотрел на деньги, потом на свою спутницу.

 Я же сказал. Возвращается домой, к мамочке и папочке, в свой пригород. Ей обрыдли ее испанская семейка и местное житье-бытье. Три братца-испанца не спускали с нее глаз.


Madox V.
26.04.2021 at 09:09 - Reply

Perspectives in Ethology pp Cite as.

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PDF | Biological and cultural evolution share the necessary conditions Indeed, many cases of reciprocal coevolutionary interaction between the genes of human individuals or eLS subject area: Evolution & Diversity of Life.

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Coevolution: Genes, culture, and human diversity. By William H. Durham. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. xxii + pp. ISBN 0‐‐‐​8.

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