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Open access OA is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. The main focus of the open access movement is " peer reviewed research literature.
Whereas conventional non-open access journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, site licenses or pay-per-view charges, open-access journals are characterised by funding models which do not require the reader to pay to read the journal's contents.
Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers , theses ,  book chapters,  monographs ,  and images. There are a number of variants of open access publishing and different publishers may use one or more of these variants.
Different open access types are currently commonly described using a colour system. The most commonly recognised names are "green", "gold", and "hybrid" open access; however, a number of other models and alternative terms are also used.
In the gold OA model, the publisher makes all articles and related content available for free immediately on the journal's website. In such publications, articles are licensed for sharing and reuse via creative commons licenses or similar. The minority of gold open access journals which charge APCs are said to follow an "author-pays" model,  although this is not an intrinsic property of gold OA. Self-archiving by authors is permitted under green OA.
Independently from publication by a publisher, the author also posts the work to a website controlled by the author, the research institution that funded or hosted the work, or to an independent central open repository, where people can download the work without paying.
Green OA is gratis for the author. If the author posts the near-final version of their work after peer review by a journal, the archived version is called a "postprint". This can be the accepted manuscript as returned by the journal to the author after successful peer review.
Hybrid open-access journals contain a mixture of open access articles and closed access articles. Bronze open access articles are free to read on the publisher page, but lack a clearly identifiable license. Journals which publish open access without charging authors article processing charges are sometimes referred to as diamond   or platinum   OA.
Since they do not charge either readers or authors directly, such publishers often require funding from external sources such as the sale of advertisements , academic institutions , learned societies , philanthropists or government grants. The growth of unauthorized digital copying by large-scale copyright infringement has enabled free access to paywalled literature. Similar to the free content definition, the terms 'gratis' and 'libre' were used in the BOAI definition to distinguish between free to read versus free to reuse.
The re-use rights of libre OA are often specified by various specific Creative Commons licenses ;  all of which require as a minimum attribution of authorship to the original authors. FAIR is an acronym for 'findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable', intended to more clearly define what is meant by the term 'open access' and make the concept easier to discuss. The emergence of open science or open research has brought to light a number of controversial and hotly-debated topics.
Scholarly publishing invokes various positions and passions. For example, authors may spend hours struggling with diverse article submission systems, often converting document formatting between a multitude of journal and conference styles, and sometimes spend months waiting for peer review results. The area of open scholarly practices increasingly see a role for policy-makers and research funders    giving focus to issues such as career incentives, research evaluation and business models for publicly funded research.
Subscription-based publishing typically requires transfer of copyright from authors to the publisher so that the latter can monetise the process via dissemination and reproduction of the work. The most common licenses used in open access publishing are Creative Commons. More rarely, some of the smaller academic journals use custom open access licenses.
Elsevier use "author nominal copyright" for OA articles, where the author retains copyright in name only and all rights are transferred to the publisher. Since open access publication does not charge readers, there are many financial models used to cover costs by other means.
Another source of funding for open access can be institutional subscribers. One example of this is the "Subscribe to Open" publishing model by Annual Reviews ; if the subscription revenue goal is met, the given journal's volume is published open access. Advantages and disadvantages of open access have generated considerable discussion amongst researchers, academics, librarians, university administrators, funding agencies, government officials, commercial publishers , editorial staff and society publishers.
Some open access journals under the gold, and hybrid models generate revenue by charging publication fees in order to make the work openly available at the time of publication. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics until recently or per author e. Steps are normally taken to ensure that peer reviewers do not know whether authors have requested, or been granted, fee waivers, or to ensure that every paper is approved by an independent editor with no financial stake in the journal.
No-fee open access journals, also known as "platinum" or "diamond"   do not charge either readers or authors. A " preprint " is typically a version of a research paper that is shared on an online platform prior to, or during, a formal peer review process. A range of discipline-specific or cross-domain platforms now exist. A persistent concern surrounding preprints is that work may be at risk of being plagiarised or "scooped" — meaning that the same or similar research will be published by others without proper attribution to the original source — if publicly available but not yet associated with a stamp of approval from peer reviewers and traditional journals.
However, preprints, in fact, protect against scooping. In a traditional publishing scenario, the time from manuscript submission to acceptance and to final publication can range from a few weeks to years, and go through several rounds of revision and resubmission before final publication.
Yet, there is no official open record of that process e. Preprints provide a time-stamp at the time of publication, which helps to establish the "priority of discovery" for scientific claims Vale and Hyman This means that a preprint can act as proof of provenance for research ideas, data, code, models, and results.
Thus, if one were to be "scooped" without adequate acknowledgement, this would be a case of academic misconduct and plagiarism, and could be pursued as such. There is no evidence that "scooping" of research via preprints exists, not even in communities that have broadly adopted the use of the arXiv server for sharing preprints since If the unlikely case of scooping emerges as the growth of the preprint system continues, it can be dealt with as academic malpractice.
ASAPbio includes a series of hypothetical scooping scenarios as part of its preprint FAQ, finding that the overall benefits of using preprints vastly outweigh any potential issues around scooping.
This route is often dependent on journal or publisher policies, [note 2] which can be more restrictive and complicated than respective "gold" policies regarding deposit location, license, and embargo requirements. Some publishers require an embargo period before deposition in public repositories,  arguing that immediate self-archiving risks loss of subscription income.
Zika outbreaks  or indigenous health . Plan S includes zero-length embargoes on self-archiving as a key principle. Open access mostly green and gratis began to be sought and provided worldwide by researchers when the possibility itself was opened by the advent of Internet and the World Wide Web.
The momentum was further increased by a growing movement for academic journal publishing reform, and with it gold and libre OA. The premises behind open access publishing are that there are viable funding models to maintain traditional peer review standards of quality while also making the following changes:.
An obvious advantage of open access journals is the free access to scientific papers regardless of affiliation with a subscribing library and improved access for the general public; this is especially true in developing countries. Lower costs for research in academia and industry have been claimed in the Budapest Open Access Initiative ,  although others have argued that OA may raise the total cost of publication,  and further increase economic incentives for exploitation in academic publishing.
The intended audience of research articles is usually other researchers. Open access helps researchers as readers by opening up access to articles that their libraries do not subscribe to. One of the great beneficiaries of open access may be users in developing countries , where currently some universities find it difficult to pay for subscriptions required to access the most recent journals. Open access extends the reach of research beyond its immediate academic circle.
An open access article can be read by anyone — a professional in the field, a researcher in another field, a journalist , a politician or civil servant , or an interested layperson. Indeed, a study revealed that mental health professionals are roughly twice as likely to read a relevant article if it is freely available.
Research funding agencies and universities want to ensure that the research they fund and support in various ways has the greatest possible research impact. A growing number of universities are providing institutional repositories in which their researchers can deposit their published articles. Some open access advocates believe that institutional repositories will play a very important role in responding to open access mandates from funders.
These institutions' administrators, faculty and librarians, and staff support the international work of the Coalition's awareness-raising and advocacy for open access. In , the Harvard Open Access Project released its guide to good practices for university open-access policies,  focusing on rights-retention policies that allow universities to distribute faculty research without seeking permission from publishers.
The awareness raising activities of the AOASG include presentations, workshops, blogs, and a webinar series on open access issues. As information professionals, librarians are often vocal and active advocates of open access. These librarians believe that open access promises to remove both the price barriers and the permission barriers that undermine library efforts to provide access to the scholarly record,  as well as helping to address the serials crisis.
Many library associations have either signed major open access declarations, or created their own. Librarians also lead education and outreach initiatives to faculty, administrators, and others about the benefits of open access.
At most universities, the library manages the institutional repository, which provides free access to scholarly work by the university's faculty. The Canadian Association of Research Libraries has a program  to develop institutional repositories at all Canadian university libraries. An increasing number of libraries provide publishing or hosting services for open access journals, with the Library Publishing Coalition as a membership organisation.
In , open access activist Aaron Swartz was posthumously awarded the American Library Association's James Madison Award for being an "outspoken advocate for public participation in government and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed scholarly articles".
Open access to scholarly research is argued to be important to the public for a number of reasons. One of the arguments for public access to the scholarly literature is that most of the research is paid for by taxpayers through government grants , who therefore have a right to access the results of what they have funded.
This is one of the primary reasons for the creation of advocacy groups such as The Alliance for Taxpayer Access in the US. Additionally, professionals in many fields may be interested in continuing education in the research literature of their field, and many businesses and academic institutions cannot afford to purchase articles from or subscriptions to much of the research literature that is published under a toll access model.
Even those who do not read scholarly articles benefit indirectly from open access. As argued by open access advocates, open access speeds research progress, productivity, and knowledge translation. Faster discoveries benefit everyone. High school and junior college students can gain the information literacy skills critical for the knowledge age.
Critics of the various open access initiatives claim that there is little evidence that a significant amount of scientific literature is currently unavailable to those who would benefit from it. Open access online, by contrast is faster, often immediate, making it more suitable than interlibrary loan for fast-paced research. In developing nations, open access archiving and publishing acquires a unique importance. Scientists, health care professionals, and institutions in developing nations often do not have the capital necessary to access scholarly literature, although schemes exist to give them access for little or no cost.
For example, individual researchers may not register as users unless their institution has access,  and several countries that one might expect to have access do not have access at all not even "low-cost" access e.
South Africa. Many open access projects involve international collaboration. Bioline International , a non-profit organization dedicated to helping publishers in developing countries is a collaboration of people in the UK, Canada, and Brazil; the Bioline International Software is used around the world.
Research Papers in Economics RePEc , is a collaborative effort of over volunteers in 45 countries. The Public Knowledge Project in Canada developed the open-source publishing software Open Journal Systems OJS , which is now in use around the world, for example by the African Journals Online group, and one of the most active development groups is Portuguese. This international perspective has resulted in advocacy for the development of open-source appropriate technology and the necessary open access to relevant information for sustainable development.
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Open access OA is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. The main focus of the open access movement is " peer reviewed research literature. Whereas conventional non-open access journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, site licenses or pay-per-view charges, open-access journals are characterised by funding models which do not require the reader to pay to read the journal's contents. Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers , theses ,  book chapters,  monographs ,  and images. There are a number of variants of open access publishing and different publishers may use one or more of these variants. Different open access types are currently commonly described using a colour system.
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Да нет же, черт возьми. И кто только распустил этот слух. Тело Колумба покоится здесь, в Испании. Вы ведь, кажется, сказали, что учились в университете. Беккер пожал плечами: - Наверное, в тот день я прогулял лекцию. - Испанская церковь гордится тем, что ей принадлежат его останки. Испанская церковь.
ГЛАВА 123 Техник с бледным лицом подбежал к подиуму. - Туннельный блок сейчас рухнет. Джабба повернул голову к экрану ВР. Атакующие линии рвались вперед, они находились уже на волосок от пятой, и последней, стены, Последние минуты существования банка данных истекали. Сьюзан отгородилась от царившего вокруг хаоса, снова и снова перечитывая послание Танкадо. PRIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELEMENTS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI ГЛАВНАЯ РАЗНИЦА МЕЖДУ ЭЛЕМЕНТАМИ, ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫМИ ЗА ХИРОСИМУ И НАГАСАКИ - Это даже не вопрос! - крикнул Бринкерхофф.
Сэр! - Беккер поднял обе руки, точно признавая свое поражение. - Меня не интересует ваша колонка. Я из канадского консульства. Я пришел, чтобы убедиться, что с вами все в порядке. Внезапно в гимнастическом зале, превращенном в больничную палату, повисла тишина.
Пуля срикошетила от стены. Рванувшись вниз за своей жертвой, он продолжал держаться вплотную к внешней стене, что позволило бы ему стрелять под наибольшим углом. Но всякий раз, когда перед ним открывался очередной виток спирали, Беккер оставался вне поля зрения и создавалось впечатление, что тот постоянно находится впереди на сто восемьдесят градусов. Беккер держался центра башни, срезая углы и одним прыжком преодолевая сразу несколько ступенек, Халохот неуклонно двигался за. Еще несколько секунд - и все решит один-единственный выстрел.
Увы, Мидж платили за то, чтобы она задавала вопросы, и Бринкерхофф опасался, что именно с этой целью она отправится прямо в шифровалку. Пора готовить резюме, подумал Бринкерхофф, открывая дверь. - Чед! - рявкнул у него за спиной Фонтейн.
Отчаянно вырываясь из его рук, Сьюзан локтем с силой ударила Хейла.