Routledge Companion To Social And Political Philosophy Pdf Papers

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Carin Combrinck University of Pretoria welcomes this book for its timeliness, sense of urgency and advancement of a missing pillar of sustainability. Redefining architecture for its social engagement and public contribution will have important implications for practice, teaching and research. It is highly meaningful to read the Routledge Companion to Architecture and Social Engagement in this particular moment in history, when half of humanity is confined to their homes during the Covid pandemic.

Notions of openness are increasingly visible in a great number of political developments, from activist groups, software projects, political writings and the institutions of government. And yet, there has been very little reflection on what openness means, how it functions, or how seemingly radically different groups can all claim it as their own. Openness, it seems, is beyond disagreement and beyond scrutiny.

The Routledge Companion to Architecture and Social Engagement

This chapter utilizes theories of social justice and human rights to examine issues of access to clean water and sanitation services, along with competing uses that include agricultural purposes essential for human health. Prospects for a just system of resource access are complicated by several factors. While water is an essential public health resource, competing uses and social values must be balanced.

Because groundwater and surface water availability depends on how each is used, integrated water management approaches are necessary, and their comprehensive authority results in decisions that touch on every aspect of social life. Finally, as water assumes greater importance as a global commodity, existing models of property rights are open to fresh moral scrutiny, ideals of democratic control over vital resources are challenged, and effective national sovereignty is tested by the complex realities of transboundary waters.

Keywords: social justice , human rights , water scarcity , global commodity , integrated water management , public health ethics , public health. Secure access to clean water is central within many discussions of public health ethics. The task of this chapter is threefold. Theories of social justice and human rights that provide the normative focus of this chapter share a commitment to health as a core element of human well-being, which is foundational to the requirements of justice.

The discussion highlights the extent to which principles of hydrology, together with demographic trends and land use patterns, make the task of integrated water resource management a particular kind of moral problem. In most circumstances, secure access to clean water and sanitation requires some entity to manage a common-pool resource, which requires choices among competing uses over an increasingly wide geographic region. The upshot is that the highly consequential choices of water managers become more complicated and ethically contested as competition for progressively scarce resources intensifies.

Globalization introduces new controversies about the kinds of institutional arrangements best suited for ensuring distributive fairness and promoting water security for all current users, including the global poor, and for future generations.

Secure access to clean water and water for other purposes is an important concern within contemporary theories of social justice. Such theories assume that a just society is one that provides favorable social conditions and sufficient resources for the secure realization of the most important elements of well-being for its members.

This approach involves a two-step argument. The first task is the identification of the core elements of well-being that anyone should want, whatever else they would want as part of a decent or dignified human life Nussbaum, ; Powers and Faden, Health, including the preservation of life and the reduction of premature morbidity, is widely recognized as a core element of human well-being that just social institutions have the responsibility to protect and promote Powers and Faden, ; Griffin, ; Ruger, ; Venkatapuram, ; Liao, The second step places the practical focus on identifying the necessary social conditions and the essential resources that are required for realizing the basic core elements for well-being for all members of a society.

Chief among the necessary social conditions are institutional arrangements that effectively combat structurally entrenched forms of disadvantage, including unfair mechanisms of political control that benefit some segments of society at the expense of others. The moral objection is that these arrangements systematically disfavor vulnerable social groups and the occupants of marginalized and disempowered social positions, and thus undermine their prospects for realizing sufficient levels of health and other core elements of well-being.

While the precise list of resources of such strategic moral importance is subject to disagreement at the margins, most theories agree that water, food, and shelter are essential resources that trigger a heightened degree of moral concern because of their indispensable role in preserving life and protecting health quality Daniels, ; Rawls, Theories of social justice therefore emphasize the importance of a social guarantee for the provision of clean water and sanitation services, along with water for food and the preservation of the ecological prerequisites for sustainable access to such services across generations Powers and Faden, ; Venkatapuram, Philosophical discussions of human rights also emphasize the special strategic importance of water resources for human well-being, in particular for health.

The task of specifying human rights claims involves a two-stage argument that is similar in format to theories of social justice. Typically, human rights are described as the minimum demands of justice.

They are the most basic claims or entitlements that all individuals have against the major institutions of any organized society Shue, ; Nickel, Thus, a human right grounded in a universal moral interest in health consists of claims to specific objects, such as access to basic health care and primary public health services, along with a public guarantee of the social infrastructure necessary for the provision of clean water and sanitation services for direct personal use and water suitable to the production of food Nickel, ; Risse, Human rights theory has been especially prominent in international conversations regarding water policy ever since clean drinking water and sanitation were declared to be a human right in the Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development in World Meteorological Organization, Social structural theories of justice have been particularly influential in some domestic contexts, and they complement human rights approaches.

Both approaches emphasize the indispensability of effective public institutions that have the requisite organizational capacity and adhere to principles of fair access to sufficient clean water and sanitation services and other vital uses for everyone, now and for future generations.

The public health rationale for social guarantees of clean water and sanitation as a requirement of justice is well known Barlow, Approximately 3.

Of those who die each year from lack of access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, 1. More than 2. For at least 1. The global burden of waterborne disease is unevenly distributed. Approximately 97 percent of deaths related to inadequate water sanitation occur in developing countries where the public health infrastructure is weak CDC, Access to water for drinking, cooking, and personal hygiene is thus a big part of the health-related rationale for both human rights and principles of social justice.

Water is an important resource for sanitation in securing health and overall well-being. The absence of adequate sanitation facilities and infrastructure results in a heavy burden of disease e. While much of the human rights literature focuses on clean water for drinking and sanitation, water also matters from a public health perspective because it is needed for food production that sustains life and ensures proper nutrition UN CESCR, Agriculture looms large in this discussion because it accounts for approximately 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals worldwide, and among the developed nations it is the largest source of water pollution World Bank, Indispensability for health, scarcity, and barriers to access give water its acute moral salience.

In simple economic terms, scarcity is defined as the condition in which demand for water—from all sectors, including individuals, agriculture, and manufacturing—exceeds the available supply. In addition, a problem that has come into sharper focus over the last few decades is physical scarcity occurring in places other than arid and desert regions.

Physical scarcity is the condition in which there is simply not enough water available to meet the needs of the inhabitants of a region. However, in less developed countries and poor regions of developed countries, poverty and inadequate institutional capital investment remain among the most important factors in the lack of water resources sufficient to meet demand. Physical scarcity nonetheless complicates matters, especially in regions where infrastructure is inadequate and poverty impedes access for many people.

At a landmark United Nations conference at Mar del Plata, Argentina, in , the focus was upon the previously counterintuitive notion that water is becoming physically scarce in many regions of the world as a result of disruptions of the hydrologic cycle, in part because of changes in the built environment UN, Water scarcity came to be recognized as a common-pool resource problem. A common-pool resource is one in which availability in sufficient quantity and quality to meet the demands of each person and for a multiplicity of purposes depends on the activities of all who draw upon that resource.

In response to an understanding of regional water availability as a joint function of growing physical scarcity, poverty and other durable impediments to access, and the necessity of allocating among competing uses, conference participants endorsed the idea of integrated water resources management IWRM. The scope of the management task, properly done, is breathtaking. A managing entity has to preside over water storage, treatment, and recycling.

It has to regulate a variety of types of agricultural and industrial activities, and balance competing uses. It has to exercise some control over suburban sprawl, industrial siting, and land use matters that implicate traditional ideas of private land rights.

It has to adjudicate between the interests of those living upstream and those living downstream in a river basin, and ensure that the water in aquifers and rivers is not too polluted for use for water supply, industrial production, agricultural use, or for the protection of biodiversity, wetlands, and aquatic systems in rivers Falkenmark, The enormous ethical implications of IWRM soon became clear.

There was a dawning recognition of the potential for proper water management to touch upon nearly every aspect of individual decision-making and collective social organization. Indeed, the most widely cited definitions of IWRM encompass many of the normative dimensions p.

The GWP summarizes the ethical significance of this definition by noting three distinct, frequently competing goals. The goal of economic efficiency is rooted in the value of economic growth and development, the goal of equity is a matter of adjudicating fairly between the competing claims of current users, and the goal of sustainability refers to the underlying health of ecosystems that assures availability of adequate resources to future generations.

A major impetus for IWRM was a fundamental change in the scientific consensus among hydrologists. The long-standing assumption of stationarity—the idea that interannual hydrologic variability fluctuates within an overall envelope of stability—was abandoned Postel, Daily, and Ehrlich, It gradually became clear from longitudinal data sets that historical patterns of physical availability throughout the world were changing, sometimes rapidly, and that the amount of physically available freshwater was in widespread decline Milly et al.

The initial models focused on the immediate consequences of the built environment, such as cities, large dams and other alterations of rivers, and cleared forests. The construction of cities and extended areas of hardscape concrete and asphalt , along with the destruction of watersheds, wetlands, and forests, leads to more runoff into oceans.

Consequently, there is less absorption into surface waters and aquifers. Surface water levels and aquifer reserves also exert interactive influence, with declining aquifers reducing the replacement rates of surface waters and the decreased capture of rainwater in bodies of surface water then resulting in slower recharge rates for aquifers Glennon, Demographic changes are another factor.

Population growth and the concentration of populations in urban areas result in an accelerated rate of withdrawal of water from all sources. These include rainwater, surface water sources such as lakes and rivers, and groundwater stored in aquifers below the surface.

The high-demand problem is not confined to the populous urban areas of the developed world. High-demand water users are becoming more geographically concentrated in regions that cannot sustain demand levels because of a combination of physical scarcity and insufficient financial resources to provide water and sanitation services to the population, especially in megacities McDonald et al.

In addition, not all types of water are equally renewable, and not all uses of water have the same effects on watersheds. Water used for industrial purposes and large-scale agriculture can be so heavily polluted that it becomes unsuitable for drinking or bathing, and some types of pollution are less amenable to conventional treatment processes Hoffman, The combined problems stemming from economic scarcity and physical scarcity are now widely seen as global issues, and although heavily concentrated in India and China, no region of the world is unaffected.

Current estimates are that by , 1. Absolute water scarcity is defined as a condition in which individuals have insufficient access to safe and affordable water to satisfy their needs for drinking, washing, or their livelihoods for a significant period of time.

Water stress is defined as a condition of intermittent insufficiency. However, estimates of the shortfall in water availability are bound up with a number of empirical and normative assumptions, and these assumptions reflect the interdependence between economic and physical scarcity. It also depends on whether the requirements for preservation of water ecosystems are taken into account and whether the long-term trend of increasingly water-intensive agricultural and industrial processes will continue, as well as whether and what kind of pricing mechanisms will be adopted in order to restrain overuse Rijsberman, All of these judgments are normatively laden social choices.

They extend far beyond any technocratic vision of sound fiscal management. Perhaps unsurprisingly, there is considerable overlap between areas now most affected by economic scarcity and many of the regions at greatest risk for worsening physical scarcity. Cited below are some of the key facts that illuminate the unequal global burden of water scarcity.

Accessible surface water is diminishing. Over 1. Widely cited estimates show an expected increase of people living in river basins under severe surface water stress from 1. That is roughly 40 percent of the anticipated world population of 9. Up to 2 billion people who depend on winter snow to deliver their summer water could see shortages by as upland and mountain snowpack continue to dwindle Mankin et al.

Among the worst affected are the predominantly poor inhabitants of the Tien Shan located in China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. Aquifer withdrawals are predicted to increase by 50 percent by in developing countries, and 18 percent in developed countries UNEP, This trend is significant because aquifers account for 35 percent of human water use worldwide.

Among the main areas to face greater losses of accessible water are the equatorial regions, which are already among the most water-stressed areas. These areas also tend to be the parts of the world most dependent on rainfall rather than irrigation as the basis for agriculture. Rain-dependent agricultural areas that are at much greater risk of crop failure are the hottest, driest regions of the world. The disruption of the hydrological cycle due to global warming is likely to hit these regions first and worst Powers,


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The Routledge companion to social and political philosophy

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This chapter utilizes theories of social justice and human rights to examine issues of access to clean water and sanitation services, along with competing uses that include agricultural purposes essential for human health. Prospects for a just system of resource access are complicated by several factors. While water is an essential public health resource, competing uses and social values must be balanced. Because groundwater and surface water availability depends on how each is used, integrated water management approaches are necessary, and their comprehensive authority results in decisions that touch on every aspect of social life. Finally, as water assumes greater importance as a global commodity, existing models of property rights are open to fresh moral scrutiny, ideals of democratic control over vital resources are challenged, and effective national sovereignty is tested by the complex realities of transboundary waters.

Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy

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Norman Daniels

Стратмор сокрушенно вздохнул и начал мерить шагами комнату. - Очевидно, когда Танкадо умер, рядом находились свидетели. Согласно словам офицера, который отвел Дэвида в морг, некий канадский турист сегодня утром в панике позвонил в полицию и сказал, что у одного японца в парке случился сердечный приступ. Прибыв на место, офицер увидел мертвого Танкадо, рядом с которым находился упомянутый канадец, и тут же по рации вызвал скорую. Когда санитары отвезли тело Танкадо в морг, офицер попытался расспросить канадца о том, что произошло.

Последний защитный слой был уже почти невидим. - Вот оно! - воскликнула Соши. - Читайте! - Джабба обливался.  - В чем разница. Должна же она .

Убедить не выпускать этот шифр из рук. Стратмор рассмеялся: - Несколько миллионов. Ты понимаешь, сколько стоит эта штука. Любое правительство выложит любые деньги. Можешь ли ты представить себе, как мы будем докладываем президенту, что перехватили сообщения иракцев, но не в состоянии их прочитать.

Оно показалось ей нескончаемо долгим. Наконец Стратмор заговорил. В его голосе слышалось скорее недоумение, чем шок: - Что ты имеешь в виду. - Хейл… - прошептала Сьюзан.  - Он и есть Северная Дакота.

На девушке был такой же, как на немце, белый махровый халат с поясом, свободно лежащим на ее широких бедрах, распахнутый ворот открывал загорелую ложбинку между грудями. Росио уверенно, по-хозяйски вошла в спальню. - Чем могу помочь? - спросила она на гортанном английском. Беккер не мигая смотрел на эту восхитительную женщину. - Мне нужно кольцо, - холодно сказал .

 - Да будет. На вид вы человек состоятельный. Дайте немножко денег, чтобы я могла вернуться домой.


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The Routledge Companion to Social and Political · Philosophy it turns out, this fact provides the primary material for political philosophy. What Is in his Unpopular Essays, New York: Simon and Schuster, ), Isaiah Available at: [accessed on 1 Feb-.

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