Different Teaching Methods And Strategies PdfBy Zak H. In and pdf 27.04.2021 at 07:31 9 min read
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The classroom is a dynamic environment, bringing together students from different backgrounds with various abilities and personalities.
- Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers
- 7 Effective Teaching Strategies For The Classroom
- Different Teaching Methods: A Panacea for Effective Curriculum Implementation in the Classroom
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Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers
As quoted and adopted from: Saskatchewan Education. Planning a unit or lesson involves a number of instructional decisions. The teacher must identify the following: the content and processes to be addressed, the strengths, needs, and interests of students, the Common Essential Learnings that could be incorporated, and the most effective instructional approaches. Such decisions are critical and must be made consciously and purposefully. As Glickman states: "Effective teaching is not a set of generic practices, but instead is a set of context-driven decisions about teaching.
Effective teachers do not use the same set of practices for every lesson. Instead, what effective teachers do is constantly reflect about their work, observe whether students are learning or not, and, then adjust their practice accordingly p.
Because there are so many variables for teachers to consider when making decisions about teaching and learning, it is essential that they have a conceptual base for understanding Saskatchewan's Core Curriculum and a framework for understanding the levels associated with instructional decision making.
This chapter deals first with the conceptual base and instructional framework, then goes on to define instructional models, strategies, methods, and skills.
The instructional approaches identified in the document are flexible enough to incorporate the Common Essential Learnings and to accommodate individual student needs, abilities, interests, and strengths through the Adaptive Dimension.
The following discussion focuses specifically upon the instructional portion of the Conceptual Base. The Instructional Framework Figure 2, the Instructional Framework, identifies and illustrates the interrelationship among instructional approaches that, properly used, are acknowledged to be consistent with sound educational practice. The approaches are referenced to the goals of education and apply to the objectives of the various curricula.
Figure 2 also illustrates the levels of approaches in instruction ranging from an instructional model, a broad approach, to an instructional skill, which represents a specific teaching behavior or technique. Within each level the potential exists for developing both the science and the art of teaching. Defining the Instructional Framework The following definition of terms will help to interpret the framework and to clarify the relationships between and among the levels.
Instructional Models Models represent the broadest level of instructional practices and present a philosophical orientation to instruction. Models are used to select and to structure teaching strategies, methods, skills, and student activities for a particular instructional emphasis.
Joyce and Weil identify four models: information processing, behavioral, social interaction, and personal. Instructional Strategies Within each model several strategies can be used. Strategies determine the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives.
Strategies can be classed as direct, indirect, interactive, experiential, or independent. Instructional Methods Methods are used by teachers to create learning environments and to specify the nature of the activity in which the teacher and learner will be involved during the lesson.
While particular methods are often associated with certain strategies, some methods may be found within a variety of strategies. Instructional Skills Skills are the most specific instructional behaviors. These include such techniques as questioning, discussing, direction-giving, explaining, and demonstrating.
They also include such actions as planning, structuring, focusing, and managing. Figure 3 illustrates the relationship among instructional models, strategies, methods, and skills. The Instructional Framework is intended to encourage teachers to examine their own instructional practice. Reflective assessment of the use of strategies, methods, and skills may lead teachers to broaden and deepen their repertoire of instructional approaches. Expanding the knowledge and expertise regarding various instructional approaches can enrich the artistry of teaching and, in turn, enhance the effectiveness of instruction.
The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a study of specific instructional models, strategies, methods, and skills. Instructional Strategies Decision making regarding instructional strategies requires teachers to focus on curriculum, the prior experiences and knowledge of students, learner interests, student learning styles, and the developmental levels of the learner.
Such decision making relies on ongoing student assessment that is linked to learning objectives and processes. Although instructional strategies can be categorized, the distinctions are not always clear-cut. For example, a teacher may provide information through the lecture method from the direct instruction strategy while using an interpretive method to ask students to determine the significance of information that was presented from the indirect instruction strategy.
Five categories of instructional strategies and the interrelationship between and among strategies are illustrated in Figure 4. Explanations of the five categories follow. Although samples of instructional methods pertaining to each category are sometimes included, these will be explained further in the section "Instructional Methods". Direct Instruction The Direct instruction strategy is highly teacher-directed and is among the most commonly used. This strategy includes methods such as lecture, didactic questioning, explicit teaching, practice and drill, and demonstrations.
The direct instruction strategy is effective for providing information or developing step-by-step skills. This strategy also works well for introducing other teaching methods, or actively involving students in knowledge construction.
Direct instruction is usually deductive. That is, the rule or generalization is presented and then illustrated with examples. While this strategy may be considered among the easier to plan and to use, it is clear that effective direct instruction is often more complex than it would first appear.
Possible Methods. In contrast to the direct instruction strategy, indirect instruction is mainly student-centered, although the two strategies can complement each other. Examples of indirect instruction methods include reflective discussion, concept formation, concept attainment, cloze procedure, problem solving, and guided inquiry. Indirect instruction seeks a high level of student involvement in observing, investigating, drawing inferences from data, or forming hypotheses.
It takes advantage of students' interest and curiosity, often encouraging them to generate alternatives or solve problems. It is flexible in that it frees students to explore diverse possibilities and reduces the fear associated with the possibility of giving incorrect answers.
Indirect instruction also fosters creativity and the development of interpersonal skills and abilities. Students often achieve a better understanding of the material and ideas under study and develop the ability to draw on these understandings. The teacher arranges the learning environment, provides opportunity for student involvement, and, when appropriate, provides feedback to students while they conduct the inquiry Martin, Indirect instruction relies heavily on the use of print, non-print, and human resources.
Learning experiences are greatly enhanced through cooperation between teachers, and between teachers and the teacher-librarians. The indirect instruction strategy can be used by teachers in almost every lesson. This strategy is most appropriate when: thinking outcomes are desired; attitudes, values, or interpersonal outcomes are desired; process is as important as product; students need to investigate or discover something in order to benefit from later instruction; there is more than one appropriate answer; the focus is personalized understanding and long term retention of concepts or generalizations; ego involvement and intrinsic motivation are desirable; decisions need to be made or problems need to be solved; and, life-long learning capability is desired.
In order for students to achieve optimum benefits during indirect instruction, it may be necessary for the teacher to preteach the skills and processes necessary to achieve the intended learning outcomes.
Indirect instruction, like other strategies, has disadvantages. Indirect instruction is more time consuming than direct instruction, teachers relinquish some control, and outcomes can be unpredictable and less safe. Indirect instruction is not the best way of providing detailed information or encouraging step-by-step skill acquisition. It is also inappropriate when content memorization and immediate recall is desired. Seaman and Fellenz suggest that discussion and sharing provide learners with opportunities to "react to the ideas, experience, insights, and knowledge of the teacher or of peer learners and to generate alternative ways of thinking and feeling" p.
Students can learn from peers and teachers to develop social skills and abilities, to organize their thoughts, and to develop rational arguments. The interactive instruction strategy allows for a range of groupings and interactive methods. These may include total class discussions, small group discussions or projects, or student pairs or triads working on assignments together.
It is important for the teacher to outline the topic, the amount of discussion time, the composition and size of the groups, and reporting or sharing techniques. Interactive instruction requires the refinement of observation, listening, interpersonal, and intervention skills and abilities by both teacher and students. The success of the interactive instruction strategy and its many methods is heavily dependent upon the expertise of the teacher in structuring and developing the dynamics of the group.
Personalized reflection about an experience and the formulation of plans to apply learnings to other contexts are critical factors in effective experiential learning. Experiential learning occurs when learners: participate in an activity; critically look back on the activity to clarify learnings and feelings; draw useful insights from such analysis; and, put learnings to work in new situations.
The emphasis in experiential learning is on the process of learning and not on the product. A teacher can use experiential learning as an instructional strategy both in and outside the classroom. For example, in the classroom students can build and stock an aquarium or engage in a simulation. Outside the classroom they can, for example, observe courtroom procedures in a study of the legal system, or conduct a public opinion survey.
Experiential learning makes use of a variety of resources. Field Trips Narratives Conducting Experiments Simulations Games Storytelling Focused Imaging Field Observations Role-playing Synectics Model Building Surveys Independent Study For the purposes of this document, independent study refers to the range of instructional methods which are purposefully provided to foster the development of individual student initiative, self-reliance, and self-improvement.
While independent study may be initiated by student or teacher, the focus here will be on planned independent study by students under the guidance or supervision of a classroom teacher. In addition, independent study can include learning in partnership with another individual or as part of a small group.
The importance of independent study is captured in the following statement: Independent learning has implications for responsible decision-making, as individuals are expected to analyze problems, reflect, make decisions and take purposeful actions.
To take responsibility for their lives in times of rapid social change, students need to acquire life-long learning capability. As most aspects of our daily lives are likely to undergo profound changes, independent learning will enable individuals to respond to the changing demands of work, family and society.
Saskatchewan Education, , p. As is the case with strategies, the distinction between methods are not always clear cut although they are categorized for the purposes of this document. Figure 5 illustrates how various methods relate to the five strategies presented in the previous section. It should be noted that the methods appearing in the diagram are examples only, and are not intended to be inclusive of all instructional methods. A sampling of instructional methods with accompanying explanations is presented in this section.
The methods are organized by instructional strategy, as they appear in Figure 5. Strategy: Direct Instruction Lecture Lecture is a valuable part of a teacher's instructional repertoire if it is not overused and if it is not used when other methods would be more effective. If the presenter is knowledgeable, perceptive, engaging, and motivating, then lecture can stimulate reflection, challenge the imagination, and develop curiosity and a sense of inquiry.
Criteria for the selection of the lecture method should include the types of experiences students will be afforded and the kinds of learning outcomes expected. Because lecture is teacher-centered and student activity can be mainly passive, the attention span of students may be limited. Many students, because of learning style preferences, may not readily assimilate lectured content.
In addition, lectured content is often rapidly forgotten. Didactic questions tend to be convergent, factual, and often begin with "what," "where," "when," and "how. Teachers should remember that didactic questions can be simplistic, can encourage guessing, and can discourage insightful answers or creativity.
However, effectiveness of this method can be increased by the appropriate addition of "why" questions, and the occasional use of "what if" questions.
7 Effective Teaching Strategies For The Classroom
The term teaching method refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction. Your choice of teaching method depends on what fits you — your educational philosophy, classroom demographic, subject area s and school mission statement. Teaching theories can be organized into four categories based on two major parameters: a teacher-centered approach versus a student-centered approach, and high-tech material use versus low-tech material use. Interested in developing your skills as a teacher? Explore online education short courses designed to give you an in depth understanding of various skills in teaching.
A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Suggestions are there to design and selection of teaching methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn. It is a known fact that human advancement comes through reasoning. The approaches for teaching can be broadly classified into teacher centered and student centered. In a teacher-centered approach to learning, teachers are the main authority figure in this model.
Regarding the language teaching used, the activities found implemented in primary grade level were limited and short while more various.
Different Teaching Methods: A Panacea for Effective Curriculum Implementation in the Classroom
Student teaching has ended. Suddenly you are standing in what will be your classroom for the next year and after the excitement of decorating it wears off and you begin lesson planning, you start to notice all of your lessons are executed the same way, just with different material. After a while, your students are bored, and so are you. There is.
Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University of Technology. This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten faculty members 3 of them from the best professors in the country and 7 from the best local professors.
Вирус. Все, что угодно, только не шифр, не поддающийся взлому. Стратмор сурово посмотрел на. - Этот алгоритм создал один самых блестящих умов в криптографии. Сьюзан пришла в еще большее смятение: самые блестящие умы в криптографии работают в ее отделе, и уж она-то наверняка хоть что-нибудь услышала бы об этом алгоритме.
- Хейл сильнее сжал горло Сьюзан. - Если лифт обесточен, я отключу ТРАНСТЕКСТ и восстановлю подачу тока в лифт. - У дверцы лифта есть код, - злорадно сказала Сьюзан.
Сообщения поступали мгновенно, и их нельзя было отследить. Он торопливо повернул выключатель. Стекла очков блеснули, и его пальцы снова задвигались в воздухе. Он, как обычно, записал имена жертв. Контакты на кончиках пальцев замкнулись, и на линзах очков, подобно бестелесным духам, замелькали буквы.
Затем он одним движением швырнул ее на пол возле своего терминала. Сьюзан упала на спину, юбка ее задралась. Верхняя пуговица блузки расстегнулась, и в синеватом свете экрана было видно, как тяжело вздымается ее грудь.
Настаивал Нуматака. - Никакой Цифровой крепости не существует! - сказал Стратмор. - Что.
Что случилось с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ. Не бывает такой диагностики, которая длилась бы восемнадцать часов. Все это вранье, и ты это отлично знаешь.