History Of Athletics Track And Field PdfBy Karen B. In and pdf 28.04.2021 at 08:21 8 min read
File Name: history of athletics track and field .zip
Athletics is a group of sporting events that involves competitive running , jumping , throwing , and walking. The results of racing events are decided by finishing position or time, where measured , while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts.
- Track and field
- Track and Field
- Track and field
- Track and Field History and the Origins of the Sport
Track and field
Track and field Athletics is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running , jumping , and throwing. Track and field is categorized under the umbrella sport of athletics , which also includes road running , cross country running , and racewalking. The foot racing events, which include sprints , middle- and long-distance events , racewalking and hurdling , are won by the athlete who completes it in the least time.
The jumping and throwing events are won by those who achieve the greatest distance or height. Regular jumping events include long jump , triple jump , high jump and pole vault , while the most common throwing events are shot put , javelin , discus and hammer. There are also "combined events" or "multi events", such as the pentathlon consisting of five events, heptathlon consisting of seven events, and decathlon consisting of ten events.
In these, athletes participate in a combination of track and field events. Most track and field events are individual sports with a single victor; the most prominent team events are relay races , which typically feature teams of four. Events are almost exclusively divided by gender, although both the men's and women's competitions are usually held at the same venue. If a race has too many people to run all at once, preliminary heats will be run to narrow down the field of participants.
Track and field is one of the oldest sports. In ancient times, it was an event held in conjunction with festivals and sports meets such as the Ancient Olympic Games in Greece. In modern times, the two most prestigious international track and field competitions are the athletics competition at the Olympic Games and the World Athletics Championships. World Athletics , formerly known as the International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body for the sport of athletics.
Records are kept of the best performances in specific events, at world and national levels, right down to a personal level. However, if athletes are deemed to have violated the event's rules or regulations, they are disqualified from the competition and their marks are erased.
In the United States, the term track and field may refer to other athletics events, such as cross country , the marathon and road running , rather than strictly track-based events. The sport of track and field has its roots in human prehistory. Track and field-style events are among the oldest of all sporting competitions , as running, jumping and throwing are natural and universal forms of human physical expression.
The first recorded examples of organized track and field events at a sports festival are the Ancient Olympic Games. At the first Games in BC in Olympia, Greece , only one event was contested: the stadion footrace. Track and field events were also present at the Panhellenic Games in Greece around this period, and they spread to Rome in Italy around BC. The stone put and weight throw competitions popular among Celtic societies in Ireland and Scotland were precursors to the modern shot put and hammer throw events.
One of the last track and field events to develop was the pole vault , which stemmed from competitions such as the Fierljeppen contests in the Northern European Lowlands in the 18th century. Discrete modern track and field competitions, separate from general sporting festivals, were first recorded in the 19th century.
These were typically organised by educational institutions , military organisations and sports clubs as competitions between rival establishments. The Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt is the oldest running club in the world, with written records going back to and evidence that it was established by Runners were entered by "owners" and named as though they were horses.
The AAA Championships , the de facto British national championships despite being for England only, have been held annually since 3 July with breaks only during two world wars and — The establishment of the modern Olympic Games at the end of the 19th century marked a new high for track and field. The Olympic athletics programme , comprising track and field events plus a marathon race, contained many of the foremost sporting competitions of the Summer Olympics.
The Olympics also consolidated the use of metric measurements in international track and field events, both for race distances and for measuring jumps and throws. The Olympic athletics programme greatly expanded over the next decades, and track and field contests remained among the Games' most prominent.
The Olympics was the elite competition for track and field, and only amateur sportsmen could compete. Track and field continued to be a largely amateur sport, as this rule was strictly enforced: Jim Thorpe was stripped of his track and field medals from the Olympics after it was revealed that he had taken expense money for playing baseball, violating Olympic amateurism rules, before the Games.
His medals were reinstated 29 years after his death. That same year, the International Amateur Athletic Federation IAAF was established, becoming the international governing body for track and field, and it enshrined amateurism as one of its founding principles for the sport. The National Collegiate Athletic Association held their first Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championship in , making it one of the most prestigious competitions for students, and this was soon followed by the introduction of track and field at the inaugural World Student Games in Up until the early s, track and field had been almost exclusively a male-only pursuit.
Alice Milliat argued for the inclusion of women at the Olympics, but the International Olympic Committee refused. She founded the International Women's Sports Federation in and, alongside a growing women's sports movement in Europe and North America, the group initiated of the Women's Olympiad held annually from to These events ultimately led to the introduction of five track and field events for women in the athletics at the Summer Olympics. Also in , physical education advocate Zhang Ruizhen called for greater equality and participation of women in Chinese track and field.
Marking an increasingly inclusive approach to the sport, major track and field competitions for disabled athletes were first introduced at the Summer Paralympics.
With the rise of numerous regional championships, as well as the growth in Olympic-style multi-sport events such as the Commonwealth Games and the Pan-American Games , competitions between international track and field athletes became widespread.
From the s onwards, the sport gained more exposure and commercial appeal through television coverage and the increasing wealth of nations. After over half a century of amateurism, the amateur status of the sport began to be displaced by growing professionalism in the late s. Many world records were broken in this period, and the added political element between competitors of the United States, East Germany , and the Soviet Union, in reaction to the Cold War , only served to stoke the sport's popularity.
The increase in the commercial capacity of track and field was also met with developments in the application of sports science , and there were many changes to coaching methods, athlete's diet regimes, training facilities and sports equipment. This was also accompanied by an increase in the use of performance-enhancing drugs.
State-sponsored doping in s and s East Germany , China ,  the Soviet Union ,  and early 21st century Russia , as well as prominent individual cases such as those of Olympic gold medallists Ben Johnson and Marion Jones , damaged the public image and marketability of the sport. From the s onwards, track and field became increasingly more professional and international, as the IAAF gained over two hundred member nations.
In , the series was replaced by the more lucrative IAAF Diamond League , a fourteen-meeting series held in Europe, Asia, North America and the Middle East—the first ever worldwide annual series of track and field meetings.
Track and field events are divided into three broad categories: track events, field events, and combined events. Track events involve running on a track over specified distances, and—in the case of the hurdling and steeplechase events—obstacles may be placed on the track. There are also relay races in which teams of athletes run and pass on a baton to their team members at the end of a certain distance.
There are two types of field events: jumps and throws. In jumping competitions, athletes are judged on either the length or height of their jumps. The performances of jumping events for distance are measured from a board or marker, and any athlete overstepping this mark is judged to have fouled.
In the jumps for height, an athlete must clear their body over a crossbar without knocking the bar off the supporting standards. The majority of jumping events are unaided, although athletes propel themselves vertically with purpose-built sticks in the pole vault. The throwing events involve hurling an implement such as a heavy weight, javelin or discus from a set point, with athletes being judged on the distance that the object is thrown.
Combined events involve the same group of athletes contesting a number of different track and field events. Races over short distances, or sprints , are among the oldest running competitions.
The first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event, the stadion race , which was a race from one end of the stadium to the other. Three sprinting events are currently held at the Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the metres , metres , and metres. At the professional level, sprinters begin the race by assuming a crouching position in the starting blocks before leaning forward and gradually moving into an upright position as the race progresses and momentum is gained.
The 60 metres is a common indoor event and indoor world championship event. Less-common events include the 50 metres , 55 metres , metres , and metres , which are run in some high school and collegiate competitions in the United States. The metres , though rarely competed, has a star-studded history: Pietro Mennea set a world best in ,  Olympic champions Michael Johnson and Donovan Bailey went head-to-head over the distance in ,  and Usain Bolt improved Mennea's record in The most common middle-distance track events are the metres , metres and mile run , although the metres may also be classified as a middle-distance event.
Runners start the race from a standing position along a curved starting line and after hearing the starting pistol they head towards the innermost track to follow the quickest route to the finish. Beyond the short distances of sprinting events, factors such as an athlete's reactions and top speed becomes less important, while qualities such as pace , race tactics and endurance become more so.
There are three common long-distance running events in track and field competitions: metres , metres and 10, metres. In terms of competition rules and physical demands, long-distance track races have much in common with middle-distance races, except that pacing, stamina , and race tactics become much greater factors in performances. The long-distance track events gained popularity in the s by the achievements of the " Flying Finns ", such as multiple Olympic champion Paavo Nurmi.
The s saw the rise of North and East African runners in long-distance events. Kenyan and Ethiopian athletes, in particular, have since remained dominant in these events. Relay races are the only track and field event in which a team of runners directly compete against other teams. Each runner completes their specified distance referred to as a leg before handing over a baton to a teammate, who then begins their leg upon receiving the baton.
There is usually a designated area where athletes must exchange the baton. Teams may be disqualified if they fail to complete the change within the area, or if the baton is dropped during the race. A team may also be disqualified if its runners are deemed to have wilfully impeded other competitors. Both events entered the Olympic programme at the Summer Games after a one-off men's medley relay featured in Olympics. For the second and third baton change overs, teammates must align themselves in respect of their team position — leading teams take the inner lanes while teammates of the slower teams must await the baton on outer lanes.
The Shuttle Hurdle Relay per Hurdling web page: In a shuttle hurdle relay, each of four hurdlers on a team runs the opposite direction from the preceding runner.
No batons are used for this particular relay. The IAAF keeps world records for five different types of track relays.
Races with hurdles as obstacles were first popularised in the 19th century in England. The metres hurdles is run in some levels of American competition. Outside of the hurdles events, the steeplechase race is the other track and field event with obstacles. Just as the hurdling events, the steeplechase finds its origin in student competition in Oxford, England.
However, this event was born as a human variation on the original steeplechase competition found in horse racing. The event was held over various distances until the Summer Olympics marked the rise of the metres steeplechase as the standard event. The long jump is one of the oldest track and field events, having its roots as one of the events within the ancient Greek pentathlon contest.
The athletes would take a short run up and jump into an area of dug up earth, with the winner being the one who jumped farthest. Athletes sprint along a length of track that leads to a jumping board and a sandpit.
The athletics competition at the first Olympics featured a men's long jump competition and a women's competition was introduced at the Summer Olympics. However, athletes must also have a consistent stride to allow them to take off near the board while still maintaining their maximum speed.
Track and Field
The ancient Olympic Games began in the year BC, when Koroibos, a cook from the nearby city of Elis, won the stadium race, a foot race feet long. According to some literary traditions, this was the only athletic event of the games for the first 13 Olympic festivals. Other evidence, both literary and archaeological, suggests that the games may have existed at Olympia much earlier than this date, perhaps as early as the tenth or ninth century BC. A series of bronze tripods have been found at Olympia, some of which appear to be dated at about the ninth century BC, and it has also been suggested that these tripods may in fact be prizes for some of the early events at Olympia. Get recruited for NCAA track and field.
Track and field
In fact, Olympic Games as we know it today developed from the ancient track and field events that very being held in Ancient Greece. However, some historians trace the origins of the Athletics back to 10th or even 9th century BC. In the year BC in the ancient Olympia in Greece the first Olympic Games were held and during that games, only one, to use modern day terminology, track and field event was held and that was the stadium footrace and the winner of that events and the first ever Olympic winner was Koroibos. Athletics or rather some of the aspects of athletics were present at the Panhellenic Games that were held in Greece and from there the ideas and the main concepts of the Athletics spread to Italy around the year BC.
Track and Field History and the Origins of the Sport
Athletes are reminded that they must check in with both events on time. Full Bio. Basic Start and Finish Rules. Officials play a vital role in making thousands of events run smoothly and safely and are essential for maintaining the highest levels of integrity at all levels of competition. Performances in each of the 36 Event Groups count separately for the Event Rankings. Running events include: 1.
The first race of record is noted to have taken place at the first Olympic Festival in Ancient Rome in B. The history of sprint races likely stretches back to the beginning of human athletic competition. Track and Field History. Grinnell College.
Очевидно, Стратмор вдруг задумался:. У Сьюзан имелся на это ответ. - Коммандер, - она снова попыталась настоять на своем, - нам нужно поговорить. - Минутку! - отрезал Стратмор, вопросительно глядя на Хейла.
- Простите. Беккер вытащил из вазы, стоявшей на столике в центре комнаты, розу и небрежно поднес ее к носу, потом резко повернулся к немцу, выпустив розу из рук. - Что вы можете рассказать про убийство. Немец побелел. - Mord.
ГЛАВА 86 Когда Сьюзан, едва переводя дыхание, появилась в дверях кабинета коммандера, тот сидел за своим столом, сгорбившись и низко опустив голову, и в свете монитора она увидела капельки пота у него на лбу. Сирена выла не преставая. Сьюзан подбежала к .
Этот алгоритм создал один самых блестящих умов в криптографии. Сьюзан пришла в еще большее смятение: самые блестящие умы в криптографии работают в ее отделе, и уж она-то наверняка хоть что-нибудь услышала бы об этом алгоритме.
Одно дело - заставить нас рассказать про ТРАНСТЕКСТ, и совершенно другое - раскрыть все государственные секреты. Фонтейн не мог в это поверить. - Вы полагаете, что Танкадо хотел остановить червя. Вы думаете, он, умирая, до последний секунды переживал за несчастное АНБ.
Хейл вгляделся в темноту, выискивая глазами место, где прятался Стратмор. Шеф внезапно замолчал и растворился во тьме. Это пугало Хейла.
Затем он сел за письменный стол и начал их допрашивать, как школьников, вызванных в кабинет директора, а они по-прежнему стояли. Говорила Мидж - излагая серию необычайных событий, которые заставили их нарушить неприкосновенность кабинета. - Вирус? - холодно переспросил директор.
А ты как думаешь. И уже мгновение спустя ее осенило.