Foundation Design And Construction Pdf


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Foundation Design and Construction written by M. Tomlinson is very useful for Civil Engineering Civil students and also who are all having an interest to develop their knowledge in the field of Building construction, Design, Materials Used and so on.

Kameswara Rao covers the key aspects of the subject, including principles of testing, interpretation, analysis, soil-structure interaction modeling, construction guidelines, and applications to rational design. Rao presents a wide array of numerical methods used in analyses so that readers can employ and adapt them on their own.

Foundation Design discusses fundamental concepts in the design of foundations. As with the author's previous work, the AJ Handbook of Building Structure, the emphasis is on practical matters and, while every architect may not aspire to more complicated designs, with the aid of this book he will be able to talk with more authority to his engineer. The book begins with an introduction to the properties rocks and soils, including sands and gravels, clays, and silts and peat. This is followed by discussions of the site investigation process, soil mechanics, and the principles of foundation design. Separate chapters cover foundation types spread foundations and piles ; foundation hazards and construction problems; and underpinning.

foundation design construction - tomlinson - 2001

The most common residential foundation materials are concrete masonry i. Preservative-treated wood, precast concrete, and other methods may also be used. The concrete slab on grade is the most popular foundation type in the Southeast; basements are the most common type in the East and Midwest.

Crawlspaces are common in the Northwest and Southeast. Pile foundations are commonly used in coastal flood zones to elevate structures above flood levels, in weak or expansive soils to reach a stable stratum, and on steeply sloped sites. A slab on grade with an independent stem wall is a concrete floor supported by the soil independently of the rest of the building. The stem wall supports the building loads and, in turn, is supported directly by the soil or a footing.

A monolithic or thickened-edge slab is a ground-supported slab on grade with an integral footing i. When necessary, piles are used to transmit the load to a deeper soil stratum with a higher bearing capacity to prevent failure due to undercutting of the foundation by scour from floodwater flow at high velocities, and to elevate the building above required flood elevations.

Piles are also used to isolate the structure from expansive soil movements. Post-and-pier foundations can provide an economical alternative to crawlspace perimeter wall construction. It is common practice to use a brick curtain wall between piers for appearance and bracing purposes. The design procedures and information in this section covers:. Concrete design procedures generally follow the strength design method contained in ACI American Concrete Institute ACI, , although certain aspects of the procedures may be considered conservative relative to conventional residential foundation applications.

For this reason, some supplemental design guidance is provided when practical and technically justified. Wood design procedures are used to design the connections between the foundation system and the structure above and follow the allowable stress design method for wood construction. In addition, the designer is referred to the applicable design standards for symbol definitions and additional guidance, since the intent of this article is to provide supplemental instruction in the efficient design of residential foundations.

In addition, soils are considered a foundation material. A brief discussion of the properties of concrete and masonry follows. Concrete is a mixture of cement, water, sand, gravel, crushed rock, or other aggregates. Sometimes, one or more admixtures are added to change certain characteristics of the concrete, such as workability, durability, and time of hardening. Residential foundation walls are typically constructed with Type I cement, which is a general-purpose Portland cement used for the vast majority of construction projects.

Other types of cement are appropriate in accommodating conditions related to heat of hydration in massive pours and sulfate resistance. In some regions, sulfates in soils have caused durability problems with concrete. The designer should check into local conditions and practices. Weight The weight of concrete varies depending on the type of aggregates used in the concrete mix. Concrete is typically referred to as lightweight or normal-weight. The density of unreinforced normal weight concrete ranges between and pounds per cubic foot pcf and is typically assumed to be pcf.

Residential foundations are constructed with normal-weight concrete. Slump Slump is the measure of concrete consistency; the higher the slump, the wetter the concrete and the easier it flows. Slump is measured in accordance with ASTM C ASTM, by inverting a standard inch-high metal cone, filling it with concrete, and then removing the cone; the amount the concrete settles in units of inches is the slump. Most foundations, slabs, and walls consolidated by hand methods have a slump between 4 and 6 inches.

One problem associated with a high-slump concrete is segregation of the aggregate, which leads to cracking and scaling. Therefore, a slump of greater than 6 should be avoided. Admixtures are materials added to the concrete mix to improve workability and durability and to retard or accelerate curing. Some of the most common admixtures include:. Reinforcement Concrete has high compressive strength but low tensile strength; therefore, reinforcing steel is often embedded in the concrete to provide additional tensile strength and ductility.

In the rare event that the capacity may be exceeded, the reinforcing steel begins to yield, eliminating an abrupt failure that may otherwise occur in plain, unreinforced concrete. For this reason, a larger safety margin is used in the design of plain concrete construction than in reinforced concrete construction.

Steel reinforcement is available in Grade 40 or Grade 60; the grade number refers to the minimum tensile yield strength of the steel Grade 40 is minimum 40 ksi steel and Grade 60 is minimum 60 ksi steel.

Either grade may be used for residential construction; however, most reinforcement in the U. It is also important that the concrete mix or slump be adjusted through the addition of an appropriate amount of water to allow the concrete to flow easily around the reinforcement bars, particularly when the bars are closely spaced or crowed at points of overlap.

However, close spacing is rarely required in residential construction and should be avoided in design. The most common steel reinforcement or rebar sizes in residential construction are No. These three sizes of rebar are easily handled at the jobsite by using manual bending and cutting devices.

Table 4. In residential construction, nominal 8-inch-thick concrete masonry units are readily available. It is generally more economical if the masonry unit's compressive strength ranges between 1, and 3, psi. The standard block used in residential and light-frame commercial construction is generally rated with a design strength of 1, psi, although other strengths are available.

Residential foundation walls should be constructed with Grade N units. Grade S may be used above grade. The grades are described below. Type I is a moisture-controlled unit that is typically specified where drying shrinkage of the block due to moisture loss may result in excessive cracking in the walls. Type II is a non-moisture-controlled unit that is suitable for all other uses. Residential foundation walls are typically constructed with Type II units. Weight Concrete masonry units are available with different densities by altering the type s of aggregate used in their manufacture.

Concrete masonry units are typically referred to as lightweight, medium-weight, or normal-weight, with respective unit weights or densities less than pcf, between and pcf, and more than pcf. Residential foundation walls are typically constructed with low- to medium-weight units because of the low compressive strength required. However, lower-density units are generally more porous and must be properly protected to resist moisture intrusion.

A common practice in residential basement foundation wall construction is to provide a cement-based parge coating and a brush- or spray-applied bituminous coating on the below-ground portions of the wall. This treatment is usually required by code for basement walls of masonry or concrete construction; however, in concrete construction, the parge coating is not necessary.

Mortar Masonry mortar is used to join concrete masonry units into a structural wall; it also retards air and moisture infiltration. The most common way to lay block is in a running bond pattern where the vertical head joints between blocks are offset by half the block's length from one course to the next. Residential foundation walls are typically constructed with Type M or Type S mortar, both of which are generally recommended for load-bearing interior and exterior walls, including above- and below-grade applications.

Grout Grout is a slurry consisting of cementitious material, aggregate and water. When needed, grout is commonly placed in the hollow cores of concrete masonry units to provide a wall with added strength. In reinforced load-bearing masonry wall construction, grout is usually placed only in those hollow cores containing steel reinforcement. The grout bonds the masonry units and steel so that they act as a composite unit to resist imposed loads. Grout may also be used in unreinforced concrete masonry walls for added strength.

Soil-Bearing Capacity and Footing Size. This test relies on a 2-inch-diameter device driven into the ground with a pound hammer dropped from a distance of 30 inches. The number of hammer drops or blows needed to create a 1-foot penetration or blow count is recorded. Values can be roughly correlated to soil-bearing values as shown in Table 4. The instrumentation and cost of conducting the SPT test is usually not warranted for typical residential applications.

Nonetheless, the SPT test method provides information on deeper soil strata and thus can offer valuable guidance for foundation design and building location, particularly when subsurface conditions are suspected to be problematic. The values in Table 4. Many engineers can provide reasonable estimates of soil-bearing by using smaller penetrometers at less cost, although such devices and methods may require an independent calibration to determine presumptive soil-bearing values and may not be able to detect deep subsurface problems.

Calibrations may be provided by the manufacturer or, alternatively, developed by the engineer. The designer should exercise judgment when selecting the final design value, and be prepared to make adjustments increases or decreases in interpreting and applying the results to a specific design.

The values in Tables 4. Use of a minimum safety factor of 2 corresponding to a higher presumptive soil-bearing value is recommended for smaller structures with continuous spread footings, such as houses. To achieve a safety factor of 2, the designer may multiply the values in Tables 4. The required width or area of a spread footing is determined by dividing the building load on the footing by the soil-bearing capacity from Table 4.

Building design loads, including dead and live loads, should be determined by using allowable stress design ASD load combinations. Footings The objectives of footing design are:.

In the next section, we'll learn about design methods for concrete and gravel footings. By far, the most common footing in residential construction is a continuous concrete spread footing. However, concrete and gravel footings are both recognized in prescriptive footing size tables in residential building codes for most typical conditions ICC, In contrast, special conditions give rise to some engineering concerns that need to be addressed to ensure the adequacy of any foundation design.

Building codes for residential construction contain tables that prescribe minimum footing widths for plain concrete footings ICC, Alternatively, footing widths may be determined in accordance with Section 4.

The following are general rules of thumb for determining the thickness of plain concrete footings for residential structures, once the required bearing width is calculated:. These rules of thumb generally result in a footing design that differs somewhat from the plain concrete design provisions of Chapter 22 of ACI It should also be understood that footing widths generally follow the width increments of standard excavation equipment a backhoe bucket size of 12, 16 or 24 inches.

Even though some designers and builders may specify one or two longitudinal No. For situations where the rules of thumb or prescriptive code tables do not apply or where a more economical solution is possible, a more detailed footing analysis may be considered. Much like a concrete footing, a gravel footing may be used to distribute foundation loads to a sufficient soil-bearing surface area.

It also provides a continuous path for water or moisture and thus must be drained in accordance with the foundation drainage provisions of the national building codes. Gravel footings are constructed of crushed stone or gravel that is consolidated by tamping or vibrating.

Foundation Design and Construction

The most common residential foundation materials are concrete masonry i. Preservative-treated wood, precast concrete, and other methods may also be used. The concrete slab on grade is the most popular foundation type in the Southeast; basements are the most common type in the East and Midwest. Crawlspaces are common in the Northwest and Southeast. Pile foundations are commonly used in coastal flood zones to elevate structures above flood levels, in weak or expansive soils to reach a stable stratum, and on steeply sloped sites.

This paper will review some of the challenges faced by designers of foundations for very tall buildings, primarily from a geotechnical viewpoint. Some characteristic features of such buildings will be reviewed and then the options for foundation systems will be discussed. A three-stage process of foundation design and verification will be described, and the importance of proper ground characterization and assessment of geotechnical parameters will be emphasised. The application of the foundation design principles will be illustrated via four projects, each of which has presented a different challenge to the designers:. A large number of these buildings are in the Middle East or in China.

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INTRODUCTION PURPOSE AND SCOPE The purpose of this document is to give guidance for the design and construction of foundations in Hong Kong.


Foundation Design & Construction by M.J.tomlinson

Embed Size px x x x x We work with leading authors to develop thestrongest educational materials in engmeenng,bringing cutting-edge thinking and best learningpractice to a global market. Under a range of well-known imprints, includmgPrentice Hall, we craft high quality print andelectronic publications which help readers tounderstand and apply their content, whetherstudying or at work. To find out more about the complete range of ourpublishing please visit us on the World Wide Web atwww pearsoneduc com. First published by Pitman Publishing Limited Second edition Third edition Fourth edition Fifth edition pubhshed under the Longman imprint Sixth edition Seventh edition

In engineering, a foundation is the element of a structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground.

Foundation Design & Construction in Hong Kong – …

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Li et al Design of Deep foundations in hong Kong Time for change? Pun — …. Foundations , Design , Construction , Hong , Foundation design amp construction in hong. Link to this page:. Probing at centre of pile or edge of pile?

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