Milk And Milk Products Pdf NotesBy Valentina O. In and pdf 30.04.2021 at 04:55 9 min read
File Name: milk and milk products notes.zip
A driving factor in the volatility of the dairy industry is that the quantity and quality of milk produced over time cannot be guaranteed. Industry and government agencies both try their best to accurately predict milk production, and everyone hopes that the milk will be of superb quality. But neither is assured, and that uncertainty has shaped how the industry has evolved and how products are marketed.
Handbook Milk and Dairy Products
By Niamh Burke, Krzysztof A. Ryan and Catherine C. Sampling and analysis occur along the milk processing train: from collection at farm level, to intake at the diary plant, the processing steps, and the end products. Milk has a short shelf life; however, products such as milk powders have allowed a global industry to be developed. Quality control tests are vital to support activities for hygiene and food standards to meet regulatory and customer demands.
Dairy products or milk products are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals , most commonly cattle , water buffaloes , goats , sheep , and camels. Dairy products include food items such as yogurt , cheese and butter. Milk is produced after optional homogenization or pasteurization , in several grades after standardization of the fat level, and possible addition of the bacteria Streptococcus lactis and Leuconostoc citrovorum. Milk can be broken down into several different categories based on type of product produced, including cream, butter, cheese, infant formula, and yogurt. Milk varies in fat content.
Grade A milk is carefully produced, processed and packaged in order to protect the safety of the consumer. Grade A milk must be pasteurized to be sold by retailers in interstate commerce. Pasteurization destroys disease-causing bacteria and extends the shelf life of milk. However, pasteurized milk can readily spoil and could cause foodborne illness if not properly protected and handled. Maintaining the Safety of Milk: Refrigeration is the single most important factor in maintaining the safety of milk. It is critical that these temperatures be maintained through warehousing, distribution, delivery and storage.
Milk By-Products Utilization
Milk is a nutrient -rich liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals, including breastfed human infants before they are able to digest solid food. It holds many other nutrients,  including protein and lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon, particularly among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals. As an agricultural product, dairy milk is collected from farm animals.
Dairy and Food Engineering. Dairy development in India, Engineering, thermal and chemical properties of milk and milk products, Process flow chart for product manufacture, Principles and equipment related to receiving of milk. Write a two-page note on dairy development in India and Orissa since independence. Evaporation of food products: principle, types of evaporators, steam economy, multiple-effect evaporation, vapour recompression, Thermal Compression. Preparation methods and equipment for the manufacture of cheese, paneer , butter and ice cream, Different packaging material used for packaging of milk and milk products, filling of milk: Principle and Equipment for filling of Liquid milk, Pasty milk products, and power.
Milk products prepared by lactic acid fermentation e. Kefir are called fermented or cultured milks. The term fermented will be used in this chapter. The generic name of fermented milk is derived from the fact that the milk for the product is inoculated with a starter culture which converts part of the lactose to lactic acid. Dependent on the type of lactic acid bacteria used carbon dioxide, acetic acid, diacetyl, acetaldehyde and several other substances are formed in the conversion process, and these give the products their characteristic fresh taste and aroma.
Dairy product , milk and any of the foods made from milk, including butter , cheese , ice cream , yogurt , and condensed and dried milk. Milk has been used by humans since the beginning of recorded time to provide both fresh and storable nutritious foods. In some countries almost half the milk produced is consumed as fresh pasteurized whole, low-fat, or skim milk. However, most milk is manufactured into more stable dairy products of worldwide commerce, such as butter, cheese, dried milks, ice cream, and condensed milk. Cow milk bovine species is by far the principal type used throughout the world.
Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products Contamination of milk: Contamination of milk occurs at two levels: On farm: Freshly drawn milk contains relatively few bacteria however Micrococcus and Streptococcus are usually found in aseptically drawn fresh milk. During normal milking process, milk is subjected to contamination from udder of animal and adjacent areas. Bacteria found in manure, soil and water contaminate are udder of animal from where they enter into the milk. Other possible source of contamination is hand and finger of milker or other dairy workers. Contamination also occurs from dairy utensils.