Brain And Its Functions Pdf


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01.05.2021 at 17:48
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brain and its functions pdf

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The brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes.

Why Study the Brain?

The brain is the most complex part in the human body. This three-pound organ is responsible for our intelligence, interpreting sensation, initiating body movement, and controlling all of our behaviors. The brain and the rest of the central nervous system are composed of a variety of cells, but the primary functional unit is a cell called a neuron. All sensations, movements, , memories, and feelings are the result of signals that pass through neurons of differing shapes, sizes, and functions.

Over hundreds of years, scientists have learned much about the brain, including the countless methods through which information is transferred from neuron to neuron at a junction called a synapse, and how hundreds — even thousands — of neurons can function together to form a larger circuit responsible for any given activity. All human brains share basic anatomical circuits and synaptic interactions, but the precise pattern of connections and interactions are highly variable from person to person—and therein lies the source of the remarkable variation we see in human behavior — from the breathtaking dance of a ballerina, to the elegant craftsmanship of a master carpenter, to the shrewd judgment of an expert trader.

Remodeling its circuitry with each new experience — our brain makes us who we are, enabling us to perceive beauty, teach our children, remember loved ones, react against injustice, learn from history, and imagine a different future. However, due to the vast complexity of the brain, much remains to be discovered. Researchers continue to explore the mechanics behind a healthy brain that functions quickly and automatically — at the speed of thought.

Truly understanding a circuit requires identifying and characterizing the component cells, defining their connections with one another, monitoring and recording their activity patterns — and we are still at the point where much work remains to identify the key differences in a vast array of unknown neurons. In the longer term, new treatments for devastating brain diseases are likely to emerge from a deeper understanding of brain circuits.

The analysis of circuits is not the only area of neuroscience worthy of attention, but advances in technology are driving a qualitative shift in what is possible, and focused progress in this area will benefit many other areas of neuroscience as well.

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The Lobes of the Brain and Their Functions

The brain is a remarkably complex organ comprised of billions of interconnected neurons and glia. It is a bilateral, or two-sided, structure that can be separated into distinct lobes. Each lobe is associated with certain types of functions, but, ultimately, all of the areas of the brain interact with one another to provide the foundation for our thoughts and behaviors. It can be said that the spinal cord is what connects the brain to the outside world. Because of it, the brain can act. The spinal cord is like a relay station, but a very smart one.

Download this glossary PDF. It is associated with neurons passing electrochemical messages down the axon , releasing neurotransmitters to neighboring cells in the synapse. They receive signals from the brain and secrete several different hormones in response, including cortisol and adrenaline. Differing alleles, which can be found at the same spot on a chromosome , produce variation in inherited characteristics such as hair color or blood type. A dominant allele is one whose physiological function—such as making hair blonde—occurs even when only a single copy is present among the two copies of each gene that everyone inherits from their parents.


PDF | based on the article Biological Foundations for Emotions. The brain is the primary function of the entire body, However, in this article, I will.


Lobes of the brain

The brain is the most complex part in the human body. This three-pound organ is responsible for our intelligence, interpreting sensation, initiating body movement, and controlling all of our behaviors. The brain and the rest of the central nervous system are composed of a variety of cells, but the primary functional unit is a cell called a neuron.

Activity 1A: A Piece of Your Mind: Brain Anatomy

The Central Nervous System

The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory.

A brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. It is located in the head , usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. It is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body.

Although we now know that most brain functions rely on many different regions across the entire brain working in conjunction, it is still true that each lobe carries out the bulk of certain functions. In humans, the lobes of the brain are divided by a number of bumps and grooves. These are known as gyri bumps and sulci groves or fissures. The folding of the brain, and the resulting gyri and sulci, increases its surface area and enables more cerebral cortex matter to fit inside the skull. This is why in frontotemporal dementia , personality changes are often the first signs of the disease.


The Parietal lobes are responsible for Spatial functions. • The left Parietal lobe is responsible for spatial language (on, over, on top of, before). • The right Parietal.


The Frontal Lobes are located in the front of the brain. They are very large and have many functions. The frontal lobes are considered to be our emotional control centre. They play a central role in our personality and how we act.

NCBI Bookshelf. Outside the specialized world of neuroanatomy and for most of the uses of daily life, the brain is more or less an abstract entity. We do not experience our brain as an assembly of physical structures nor would we wish to, perhaps ; if we envision it at all, we are likely to see it as a large, rounded walnut, grayish in color. This schematic image refers mainly to the cerebral cortex, the outermost layer that overlies most of the other brain structures like a fantastically wrinkled tissue wrapped around an orange. The preponderance of the cerebral cortex which, with its supporting structures, makes up approximately 80 percent of the brain's total volume is actually a recent development in the course of evolution.

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