Teacher Made Test Advantages And Disadvantages Pdf


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There are plenty of possible formats out there: summative, formative, essay, multiple choice — the list goes on and on.

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The Pro’s and Cons of Teacher-Designed Tests

Alternative Names for Authentic Assessment. A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills -- Jon Mueller.

Engaging and worthy problems or questions of importance, in which students must use knowledge to fashion performances effectively and creatively. The tasks are either replicas of or analogous to the kinds of problems faced by adult citizens and consumers or professionals in the field. Stiggins -- Stiggins, , p.

An authentic assessment usually includes a task for students to perform and a rubric by which their performance on the task will be evaluated. Click the following links to see many examples of authentic tasks and rubrics. The following comparison is somewhat simplistic, but I hope it illuminates the different assumptions of the two approaches to assessment.

By "traditional assessment" TA I am referring to the forced-choice measures of multiple-choice tests, fill-in-the-blanks, true-false, matching and the like that have been and remain so common in education.

Students typically select an answer or recall information to complete the assessment. These tests may be standardized or teacher-created. They may be administered locally or statewide, or internationally. Behind traditional and authentic assessments is a belief that the primary mission of schools is to help develop productive citizens.

That is the essence of most mission statements I have read. From this common beginning, the two perspectives on assessment diverge.

Essentially, TA is grounded in educational philosophy that adopts the following reasoning and practice:. A school's mission is to develop productive citizens. To be a productive citizen an individual must possess a certain body of knowledge and skills. Therefore, schools must teach this body of knowledge and skills. To determine if it is successful, the school must then test students to see if they acquired the knowledge and skills. In the TA model, the curriculum drives assessment. That knowledge becomes the curriculum that is delivered.

Subsequently, the assessments are developed and administered to determine if acquisition of the curriculum occurred. In contrast, authentic assessment AA springs from the following reasoning and practice:. To be a productive citizen, an individual must be capable of performing meaningful tasks in the real world. Therefore, schools must help students become proficient at performing the tasks they will encounter when they graduate.

To determine if it is successful, the school must then ask students to perform meaningful tasks that replicate real world challenges to see if students are capable of doing so. Thus, in AA, assessment drives the curriculum. That is, teachers first determine the tasks that students will perform to demonstrate their mastery, and then a curriculum is developed that will enable students to perform those tasks well, which would include the acquisition of essential knowledge and skills.

This has been referred to as planning backwards e. If I were a golf instructor and I taught the skills required to perform well, I would not assess my students' performance by giving them a multiple choice test. I would put them out on the golf course and ask them to perform. Although this is obvious with athletic skills, it is also true for academic subjects. We can teach students how to do math, do history and do science, not just know them.

Then, to assess what our students had learned, we can ask students to perform tasks that "replicate the challenges" faced by those using mathematics, doing history or conducting scientific investigation. But a teacher does not have to choose between AA and TA.

It is likely that some mix of the two will best meet your needs. To use a silly example, if I had to choose a chauffeur from between someone who passed the driving portion of the driver's license test but failed the written portion or someone who failed the driving portion and passed the written portion, I would choose the driver who most directly demonstrated the ability to drive, that is, the one who passed the driving portion of the test.

However, I would prefer a driver who passed both portions. I would feel more comfortable knowing that my chauffeur had a good knowledge base about driving which might best be assessed in a traditional manner and was able to apply that knowledge in a real context which could be demonstrated through an authentic assessment. Another way that AA is commonly distinguished from TA is in terms of its defining attributes.

Of course, TA's as well as AA's vary considerably in the forms they take. But, typically, along the continuums of attributes listed below, TA's fall more towards the left end of each continuum and AA's fall more towards the right end. Traditional Authentic. Selecting a Response Performing a Task. Contrived Real-life. Teacher-structured Student-structured. Indirect Evidence Direct Evidence.

Let me clarify the attributes by elaborating on each in the context of traditional and authentic assessments:. Selecting a Response to Performing a Task: On traditional assessments, students are typically given several choices e. In contrast, authentic assessments ask students to demonstrate understanding by performing a more complex task usually representative of more meaningful application.

Contrived to Real-life: It is not very often in life outside of school that we are asked to select from four alternatives to indicate our proficiency at something. Tests offer these contrived means of assessment to increase the number of times you can be asked to demonstrate proficiency in a short period of time. More commonly in life, as in authentic assessments, we are asked to demonstrate proficiency by doing something.

Thus, as mentioned above, tests can serve as a nice complement to authentic assessments in a teacher's assessment portfolio. Furthermore, we are often asked to recall or recognize facts and ideas and propositions in life, so tests are somewhat authentic in that sense. However, the demonstration of recall and recognition on tests is typically much less revealing about what we really know and can do than when we are asked to construct a product or performance out of facts, ideas and propositions.

Authentic assessments often ask students to analyze, synthesize and apply what they have learned in a substantial manner, and students create new meaning in the process as well. Teacher-structured to Student-structured: When completing a traditional assessment, what a student can and will demonstrate has been carefully structured by the person s who developed the test.

A student's attention will understandably be focused on and limited to what is on the test. In contrast, authentic assessments allow more student choice and construction in determining what is presented as evidence of proficiency.

Even when students cannot choose their own topics or formats, there are usually multiple acceptable routes towards constructing a product or performance. Obviously, assessments more carefully controlled by the teachers offer advantages and disadvantages.

Similarly, more student-structured tasks have strengths and weaknesses that must be considered when choosing and designing an assessment. Indirect Evidence to Direct Evidence: Even if a multiple-choice question asks a student to analyze or apply facts to a new situation rather than just recall the facts, and the student selects the correct answer, what do you now know about that student? Did that student get lucky and pick the right answer?

What thinking led the student to pick that answer? We really do not know. At best, we can make some inferences about what that student might know and might be able to do with that knowledge. The evidence is very indirect, particularly for claims of meaningful application in complex, real-world situations. Authentic assessments, on the other hand, offer more direct evidence of application and construction of knowledge.

As in the golf example above, putting a golf student on the golf course to play provides much more direct evidence of proficiency than giving the student a written test. Can a student effectively critique the arguments someone else has presented an important skill often required in the real world? Asking a student to write a critique should provide more direct evidence of that skill than asking the student a series of multiple-choice, analytical questions about a passage, although both assessments may be useful.

Teaching to the Test. These two different approaches to assessment also offer different advice about teaching to the test. Under the TA model, teachers have been discouraged from teaching to the test. That is because a test usually assesses a sample of students' knowledge and understanding and assumes that students' performance on the sample is representative of their knowledge of all the relevant material.

If teachers focus primarily on the sample to be tested during instruction, then good performance on that sample does not necessarily reflect knowledge of all the material. So, teachers hide the test so that the sample is not known beforehand, and teachers are admonished not to teach to the test. With AA, teachers are encouraged to teach to the test.

Students need to learn how to perform well on meaningful tasks. To aid students in that process, it is helpful to show them models of good and not so good performance. Furthermore, the student benefits from seeing the task rubric ahead of time as well. Is this "cheating"? Will students then just be able to mimic the work of others without truly understanding what they are doing? Authentic assessments typically do not lend themselves to mimicry.

There is not one correct answer to copy. So, by knowing what good performance looks like, and by knowing what specific characteristics make up good performance, students can better develop the skills and understanding necessary to perform well on these tasks.

For further discussion of teaching to the test, see Bushweller. You can also learn something about what AA is by looking at the other common names for this form of assessment. For example, AA is sometimes referred to as. Performance Assessment or Performance-based -- so-called because students are asked to perform meaningful tasks.

This is the other most common term for this type of assessment. Some educators distinguish performance assessment from AA by defining performance assessment as performance-based as Stiggins has above but with no reference to the authentic nature of the task e. For these educators, authentic assessments are performance assessments using real-world or authentic tasks or contexts.

Since we should not typically ask students to perform work that is not authentic in nature, I choose to treat these two terms synonymously. Alternative Assessment -- so-called because AA is an alternative to traditional assessments.

Direct Assessment -- so-called because AA provides more direct evidence of meaningful application of knowledge and skills.

Teacher Made Test: Meaning, Features and Uses | Statistics

In the United States, both public and private schools use standardized assessments each school year. In public schools, students must undergo many tests to ensure they are meeting state or federal standards. Private schools have more leeway, although at Whitby we do require our students from Grade 2 on to complete the Comprehensive Testing Program from the Educational Records Bureau and the International Schools Assessment from the Australian Council for Educational Research. When Whitby students are assessed through standardized testing, we gain a valuable metric we can use to check the quality of our curriculum. With exams created and given by an independent organization, standardized test scores are useful because they come from a neutral source and give us data that we can compare to other independent schools across the United States and with other international schools across the globe. When we receive standardized test data at Whitby, we use it to evaluate the effectiveness of our education program.

Alternative Names for Authentic Assessment. A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills -- Jon Mueller. Engaging and worthy problems or questions of importance, in which students must use knowledge to fashion performances effectively and creatively. The tasks are either replicas of or analogous to the kinds of problems faced by adult citizens and consumers or professionals in the field. Stiggins -- Stiggins, , p. An authentic assessment usually includes a task for students to perform and a rubric by which their performance on the task will be evaluated. Click the following links to see many examples of authentic tasks and rubrics.

What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Teacher-Made Tests?

Kym teaches sixth grade students in an urban school where most of the families in the community live below the poverty line. Each year the majority of the students in her school fail the statewide tests. Kym follows school district teaching guides and typically uses direct instruction in her Language Arts and Social Studies classes.

A standardized test is a testing format which requires all test takers to either answer the same questions or to answer from questions that are selected from the same bank of questions, in the same way. Those answers must then be scored consistently, in a standard manner, to make it possible to compare the results of individual tests as a performance standard. Standardized testing can be applied to virtually any type of test or assessment. The term is often reserved for large-scale tests that are administered to students in the public-school districts throughout the United States.

Module 3 – Teacher-Made Test Construction

18 Advantages and Disadvantages of Standardized Testing

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Teacher Made Test 2. Features of Teacher-Made Tests 3. Carefully constructed teacher-made tests and standardised tests are similar in many ways. Both are constructed on the basis of carefully planned table of specifications, both have the same type of test items, and both provide clear directions to the students. Still the two differ. They differ in the quality of test items, the reliability of test measures, the procedures for administering and scoring and the interpretation of scores.

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Asked by Wiki User. It's harder to cheat. Our teacher takes her from a website we know. The advantages to a flame test are they are fast, easy and inexpensive. The disadvantages are that the results are observance based and can vary depending on the scientist.


Whether pre-made or not, when developing classroom assessment tools, teachers should Teacher-designed tests offer clear advantages.


The Pros and Cons of Standardized Testing

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Compare and contrast the different types of teacher-made test items and the advantages and disadvantages associated with each. 4. Construct the different.

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Teacher-made test is the major basis for evaluating the progress or performance of the students in the classroom.

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