Design Of Oil Handling Systems And Facilities Pdf


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Modeling and Control of Three-Phase Gravilty Separators in Oil Production Facilities

By Maurice Stewart and Ken E. The job of a production facility is to separate the well stream into three components, typically called phases oil, gas, and water , and process these phases into some marketable product s or dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner.

In mechanical devices called separators, gas is flashed from the liquids and free water is separated from the oil. These steps remove enough light hydrocarbons to produce a stable crude oil with the volatility vapor pressure to meet sales criteria.

Figures and show typical separators used to separate gas from liquid or water from oil. Separators can be either horizontal or vertical in configuration. The gas that is separated must be compressed and treated for sales.

Compression is typically done by engine-driven reciprocating compressors see Figure In large facilities or in booster service, turbine-driven centrifugal compressors, such as that shown in Figure , are used. Large integral reciprocating compressors are also used see Figure Figure A typical vertical two phase separator at a land location. The inlet comes in the left side, gas comes off the top, and liquid leaves the bottom right side of the separator.

A typical horizontal separator on an offshore platform showing the inlet side. Note the drain valves at various points along the bottom and the access platform along the top. Engine-driven reciprocating compressor package. The inlet and inter-stage scrubbers separators are at the right. The gas is routed through pulsation bottles to gas cylinders and then to the cooler on the left end of the package.

The engine that drives the compressor cylinders is located to the right of the box-like cooler. Turbine-driven centrifugal compressor package. The turbine draws air in from the large duct on the left. This is mixed with fuel and ignited.

The jet of gas thus created causes the turbine blades to turn at high speed before being exhausted vertically upward through the large cylindrical duct. The turbine shaft drives the two centrifugal compressors, which are located behind the control cabinets on the tight end of the skid.

A Bhp integral reciprocating compressor. The sixteen power cylinders located at the top of the unit eight on each side drive a crankshaft that is directly coupled to the horizontal compressor cylinders facing the camera.

Large cylindrical bottles mounted above and below the compressor cylinders filter out acoustical pulsations in the gas being compressed. This is normally done in a glycol dehydrator, such as that shown in Figure A small glycol gas dehydration system.

The large vertical vessel on the left is the contact tower where dry glycol contacts the gas and absorbs water vapor. The upper horizontal vessel is the reboiler or reconcentrator where the wet glycol is heated, boiling off the water that exits the vertical pipe coming off the top just behind the contact tower. The lower horizontal vessel serves as a surge tank. Dry glycol is pumped to the large vertical contact tower, where it strips the gas of its water vapor.

The wet glycol then flows through a separator to the large horizontal reboiler, where it is heated and the water boiled off as steam. In some locations it may be necessary to remove the heavier hydrocarbons to lower the hydrocarbon dew point. Contaminants such as H2S and CO2 may be present at levels higher than those acceptable to the gas purchaser. If this is the case, then additional equipment will be necessary to sweeten the gas.

The oil and emulsion from the separators must be treated to remove water. This will typically vary from 0. Some refineries have a limit on salt content in the crude, which may require several stages of dilution with fresh water and subsequent treating to remove the water. Typical salt limits are 10 to 25 pounds of salt per thousand barrels. Figures and are typical direct-fired heater-treaters that are used for removing water from the oil and emulsion being treated.

These can be either horizontal or vertical in configuration and are distinguished by the fire tube, air intakes, and exhausts that are clearly visible.

Treaters can be built without fire tubes, which makes them look very much like separators. Oil treating can also be done by settling or in gunbarrel tanks, which have either external or internal gas boots.

A gunbarrel tank with an internal gas boot is shown in Figure A vertical heater-treater. The emulsion to be treated enters on the far side.

The fire-tubes facing the camera heat the emulsion, and oil exits near the top. Water exits the bottom through the external water leg on the right, which maintains the proper height of the interface between oil and water in the vessel.

Gas exits the top. Some of the gas goes to the small pot at the lower right where it is scrubbed prior to being used for fuel for the burners. A gunbarrel tank for treating oil. The emulsion enters the gas boot on top where gas is liberated and then drops into the tank through a specially designed down-comer and spreader system. The interface between oil and water is maintained by the external water leg attached to the right side of the tank. Gas from the tank goes through the inclined pipe to a vapor recovery compressor to be salvaged for fuel use.

Production facilities must also accommodate accurate measuring and sampling of the crude oil. Figure shows a typical LACT unit. A LACT unit for custody transfer of oil. The flow comes through a strainer with a gas eliminator on top before passing through the meter. The meter contains devices for making temperature and gravity corrections, for driving the sampler, and for integrating the meter output with that of a meter prover not shown.

The water that is produced with crude oil can be disposed of overboard in most offshore areas, or evaporated from pits in some locations onshore. Usually, it is injected into disposal wells or used for water-flooding. In any case, water from the separators must be treated to remove small quantities of produced oil. If the water is to be injected into a disposal well, facilities may be required to filter solid particles from it.

Water treating can be done in horizontal or vertical skimmer vessels, which look very much like separators. A corrugated plate interceptor CPI used for treating water. Note that the top plates are removable so that maintenance can be performed on the plates located internally to the unit. A horizontal skimmer vessel for primary separation of oil from water with a gas flotation unit for secondary treatment located in the foreground.

Treated water from the flotation effluent is recycled by the pump to each of the three cells. Gas is sucked into the stream from the gas space on top of the water by a venture and dispersed in the water by a nozzle. Any solids produced with the well stream must also be separated, cleaned, and disposed of in a manner that does not violate environmental criteria. Facilities may include sedimentation basins or tanks, hydrocyclones, filters, etc.

Figure is a typical hydrocyclone or desander installation. Hydrocyclone desanders used to separate sand from produced water prior to treating the water. The facility must provide for well testing and measurement so that gas, oil, and water production can be properly allocated to each well. This is necessary not only for accounting purposes but also to perform reservoir studies as the field is depleted. The preceding paragraphs summarize the main functions of a production facility, but it is important to note that the auxiliary systems supporting these functions often require more time and engineering effort than the production itself.

These support efforts include. Developing a site with roads and foundations if production is onshore, or with a platform, tanker, or some more exotic structure if production is offshore.

Providing utilities to enable the process to work: generating and distributing electricity; providing and treating fuel gas or diesel; providing instrument and power air; treating water for desalting or boiler feed, etc.

Figure shows a typical generator installation, and Figure shows an instrument air compressor. A gas-engine-driven generator located in a building on an offshore platform. A series of three electric-motor-driven instrument air compressors. Note each one has its own cooler. A large air receiver is included to minimize the starting and stopping of the compressors and to assure an adequate supply for surges.

Providing facilities for personnel, including quarters see Figure , switchgear and control rooms see Figure , workshops, cranes, sewage treatment units see Figure , drinking water see Figure , etc. A three-story quarters building on a deck just prior to loadout for cross-ocean travel.

A helideck is located on top of the quarters. An activated sludge sewage treatment unit for an offshore platform. Providing safety systems for detecting potential hazards see Figures and , for fighting hazardous situations when they occur see Figures and , and for personnel protection and escape see Figure A pneumatic shut-in panel with first-out indication to inform the operator of which end element caused the shutdown.

The pneumatic logic within the panel shown in Figure Diesel engine driven fire-fighting pump driving a vertical turbine pump through a right angle gear. An escape capsule mounted on the lower deck of a platform. The unit contains an automatic lowering device and motor for leaving the vicinity of the platform. Figure shows a typical pressure controller and control valve. In the black box the controller is a device that sends a signal to the actuator, which opens and closes the control valve to control pressure.

Figure shows a self-contained pressure controller, which has an internal mechanism that senses the pressure and opens and closes the valve as required.

Surface production operations. / Volume 1, Design of oil handling systems and facilities

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Sayda and J. Sayda , J. Oil production facilities exhibit complex and challenging dynamic behavior. An upset in the oil component of the incoming oil-well stream is introduced to analyze its effect of the different process variables and produced oil quality.

ISBN , He has been an active international oil and gas consulting engineer since involved in projects related to surface production operations, upstream facilities, field development, oil and gas production systems performance optimization, equipment selection, petroleum fluids treating and processing and fluids disposal management. Oilfield Processing of Petroleum, Vol. Gulf Professional Publishing, p. Surface Production Operations: Facility Piping and Pipeline Systems, Volume III is a hands-on manual for applying mechanical and physical principles to all phases of facility piping and pipeline system design, construction, and operation. The third. For over twenty years this now classic series has taken the guesswork out of the design, selection.

The latest edition of this best-selling title is updated and expanded for easier use by engineers. New to this edition is a section on the fundamentals of surface production operations taking up topics from the oilfield as originally planned by the authors in the first edition. This information is necessary and endemic to production and process engineers. Now, the book offers a truly complete picture of surface production operations, from the production stage to the process stage with applications to process and production engineers. Petroleum engineers, plant engineers, process engineers, oilfield surface production managers, field engineers, mechanical engineers. Maurice Stewart, PE, a Registered Professional Engineer with over 40 years international consulting experience in project management; designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating, optimizing, retrofitting and troubleshooting oil, water and gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities; designing plant piping and pipeline systems, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, process equipment, and pumping and compression systems; and leading hazards analysis reviews and risk assessments. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.


Surface Production Operations: Design of Oil-Handling Systems and Facilities · Browse this book · Book description · Get this book · Browse content · About the book.


Surface Production Operations, Volume 1: Design of Oil Handling Systems and Facilities

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Surface Production Operations Volume 3 Pdf

Surface Production Operations Volume 3 Pdf

By Maurice Stewart and Ken E. The job of a production facility is to separate the well stream into three components, typically called phases oil, gas, and water , and process these phases into some marketable product s or dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. In mechanical devices called separators, gas is flashed from the liquids and free water is separated from the oil. These steps remove enough light hydrocarbons to produce a stable crude oil with the volatility vapor pressure to meet sales criteria.

This Unified Facilities Criteria, UFC , contains general criteria and standard procedures for the design and construction of military land-based facilities which receive, store, distribute, or dispense liquid fuels. It provides guidance on the rehabilitation, deactivation, or closure of fueling facilities. Support facilities are also included. Facility Plate provides assistance in identifying UFC chapter numbers for specific fueling components. These criteria, except Chapters 12, 13, and 14 of this UFC, are intended for new construction only and do not apply retroactively to facilities existing at the time this UFC was issued.


Surface Production Operations Design of Oil Handling Systems and Facilities and gas handling facilities; they were based on our production facility design.


Haynes ManualsThe Haynes Author : Maurice Stewart, Ken E. Arnold Description:The latest edition of this best-selling title is updated and expanded for easier use by engineers. New to this edition is a section on the fundamentals of surface production operations taking up topics from the oilfield as originally planned by the authors in the first edition.

 Нет, серьезно, Сьюзан, тебе никогда не приходило в голову, что это все-таки возможно и что Танкадо действительно придумал невзламываемый алгоритм. Этот разговор был ей неприятен. - Ну, мы не сумели этого сделать.

На нем бесконечно повторялась видеозапись убийства Танкадо.

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Его доказательства, его программы всегда отличали кристальная ясность и законченность. Необходимость убрать пробелы показалась ей странной. Это была мелочь, но все же изъян, отсутствие чистоты - не этого она ожидала от Танкадо, наносящего свой коронный удар. - Тут что-то не так, - наконец сказала .

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Каждой единице информации присваивался уровень секретности, и, в зависимости от этого уровня, она использовалась правительственными чиновниками по профилю их деятельности. Командир подводной лодки мог получить последние спутниковые фотографии российских портов, но не имел доступа к планам действий подразделений по борьбе с распространением наркотиков в Южной Америке. Эксперты ЦРУ могли ознакомиться со всеми данными об известных убийцах, но не с кодами запуска ракет с ядерным оружием, которые оставались доступны лишь для президента.

Она выглядела как первокурсница, попавшая под дождь, а он был похож на студента последнего курса, одолжившего ей свою куртку. Впервые за многие годы коммандер почувствовал себя молодым. Его мечта была близка к осуществлению. Однако, сделав еще несколько шагов, Стратмор почувствовалчто смотрит в глаза совершенно незнакомой ему женщины.

Мужчины начали спорить. - У нас вирус. Затем раздался крик: - Нужно немедленно вызвать Джаббу. Послышались другие звуки, похожие на шум борьбы.

 - Что показалось тебе странным. Сьюзан восхитилась спектаклем, который на ее глазах разыгрывал коммандер. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ работает с чем-то очень сложным, фильтры никогда ни с чем подобным не сталкивались.

 Говорите. - Где мой ключ? - прозвучал знакомый голос. - Кто со мной говорит? - крикнул Стратмор, стараясь перекрыть шум.

Я понимал, что если он продаст свой алгоритм японской компании, производящей программное обеспечение, мы погибли, поэтому мне нужно было придумать, как его остановить. Я подумал о том, чтобы его ликвидировать, но со всей этой шумихой вокруг кода и его заявлений о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ мы тут же стали бы первыми подозреваемыми. И вот тогда меня осенило.

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