Theories Of Crime And Deviance Pdf


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To a large extent, criminology and studies of deviance have developed along separate tracks although they show much overlap.

Sociological Explanations of Deviant Behavior

Sociological theories of deviance are those that use social context and social pressures to explain deviance. The study of social deviance is the study of the violation of cultural norms in either formal or informal contexts. Social deviance is a phenomenon that has existed in all societies with norms. Four main sociological theories of deviance exist.

The first is the social strain typology developed by American sociologist Robert K. Merton proposed a typology of deviant behavior, a classification scheme designed to facilitate understanding. According to Merton, there are five types of deviance based upon these criteria: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion. For instance, individuals in the U. Thus, deviance can be the result of accepting one norm, but breaking another in order to pursue the first.

The second main sociological explanation of deviance comes from structural functionalism. This approach argues that deviant behavior plays an active, constructive role in society by ultimately helping to cohere different populations within a particular society.

Deviance helps to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. It draws lines and demarcates boundaries. This is an important function that affirms the cultural values and norms of a society for the members of that society.

Finally, deviance is actually seen as one means for society to change over time. Deviant behavior can imbalance the social equilibrium but—in the process of restoring balance—society will adjust norms.

With changing norms in response to deviance, the deviant behavior can contribute to long-term social stability. The third main sociological theory of deviance is conflict theory. Conflict theory suggests that deviant behaviors result from social, political, or material inequalities of a social group.

An example of conflict theory would be the Occupy Wall Street movement that began in the fall of Angered at the extreme inequalities in wealth distribution in the United States, protesters began to organize more communal ways of living in Zucotti Park—near Wall Street in New York City—in order to protest the lavish means of life of those at the top of the socioeconomic ladder. The protesters were deviating from social norms of coherence in order to articulate grievances against the extremely wealthy.

Their actions and perspectives demonstrate the use of conflict theory to explain social deviance. The fourth main sociological theory of deviance is labeling theory. Labeling theory refers to the idea that individuals become deviant when a deviant label is applied to them; they adopt the label by exhibiting the behaviors, actions, and attitudes associated with the label.

Labeling theory argues that people become deviant as a result of others forcing that identity upon them. This process works because of stigma; in applying a deviant label, one attaches a stigmatized identity to the labeled individual. Labeling theory allows us to understand how past behaviors of a deviant-labeled individual are reinterpreted in accordance with their label.

Much of their behavior leading up to the school shootings has been reinterpreted in light of the deviant identity with which they were labeled as a result of the shootings. Learning Objectives Describe four different sociological approaches to deviance. Key Points Social strain typology, developed by Robert K. Structural functionalism argues that deviant behavior plays an active, constructive role in society by ultimately helping cohere different populations within a society.

Conflict theory suggests that deviant behaviors result from social, political, or material inequalities in a social group. Labeling theory argues that people become deviant as a result of people forcing that identity upon them and then adopting the identity.

Key Terms conformity : the ideology of adhering to one standard or social uniformity typology : The systematic classification of the types of something according to their common characteristics. Retrospective labeling : Occurs when a deviant recognizes her acts as deviant prior to the primary deviance, while prospective labeling is when the deviant recognizes future acts as deviant.

Crime: The study of social deviance is the study of the violation of cultural norms in either formal or informal contexts. Social deviance is a phenomenon that has existed in all societies where there have been norms.

Social Strain Typology Four main sociological theories of deviance exist. Structural Functionalism The second main sociological explanation of deviance comes from structural functionalism. Conflict Theory Punks: Labeling theory argues that people, such as punks, become deviant as a result of people forcing that identity upon them and then adopting the identity.

Labeling Theory The fourth main sociological theory of deviance is labeling theory.

Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance

Sociological theories of deviance are those that use social context and social pressures to explain deviance. The study of social deviance is the study of the violation of cultural norms in either formal or informal contexts. Social deviance is a phenomenon that has existed in all societies with norms. Four main sociological theories of deviance exist. The first is the social strain typology developed by American sociologist Robert K. Merton proposed a typology of deviant behavior, a classification scheme designed to facilitate understanding. According to Merton, there are five types of deviance based upon these criteria: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion.

This entry focuses on the three major sociological theories of crime and delinquency: strain, social learning, and control theories. It then briefly describes several other important theories of crime, most of which represent elaborations of these three theories. Finally, efforts to develop integrated theories of crime are briefly discussed. All of the theories that are described explain crime in terms of the social environment, including the family, school, peer group , workplace, community, and society. These theories, however, differ from one another in several ways: they focus on somewhat different features of the social environment, they offer different accounts of why the social environment causes crime, and some focus on explaining individual differences in crime while others attempt to explain group differences in crime e. Why do people engage in crime according to strain theory?

The concept of deviance is complex because norms vary considerably across groups, times, and places. In other words, what one group may consider acceptable, another may consider deviant. For example, in some parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Muslim Africa, women are circumcised. In America, the thought of female circumcision, or female genital mutilation as it is known in the United States, is unthinkable; female genital mutilation, usually done in unsanitary conditions that often lead to infections, is done as a blatantly oppressive tactic to prevent women from having sexual pleasure. A number of theories related to deviance and criminology have emerged within the past 50 years or so. For example, juvenile gangs provide an environment in which young people learn to become criminals.

7.3A: Sociological Theories of Deviance

Why does deviance occur? How does it affect a society? Since the early days of sociology, scholars have developed theories that attempt to explain what deviance and crime mean to society. These theories can be grouped according to the three major sociological paradigms: functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory. Sociologists who follow the functionalist approach are concerned with the way the different elements of a society contribute to the whole.

Deviant behavior is any behavior that is contrary to the dominant norms of society. Here, we review four of the major sociological explanations for deviant behavior. Merton developed structural strain theory as an extension of the functionalist perspective on deviance. This theory traces the origins of deviance to the tensions caused by the gap between cultural goals and the means people have available to achieve those goals. According to this theory, societies are composed of both culture and social structure.

Handbook on Crime and Deviance

This handbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the field of criminology at the turn of the 21st century. It is designed to review the important recent developments in the sociology of crime and deviance, including:. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.

Crime Causation: Sociological Theories

If we want to be able to reduce crime, we must first understand why it occurs. Sociologists generally discount explanations rooted in the individual biology or psychology of criminal offenders. While a few offenders may suffer from biological defects or psychological problems that lead them to commit crime, most do not. Further, biological and psychological explanations cannot adequately explain the social patterning of crime discussed earlier: why higher crime rates are associated with certain locations and social backgrounds. For example, if California has a higher crime rate than Maine, and the United States has a higher crime rate than Canada, it would sound silly to say that Californians and Americans have more biological and psychological problems than Mainers and Canadians, respectively.

Sociological theories of deviance are those that use social context and social pressures to explain deviance. The study of social deviance is the study of the violation of cultural norms in either formal or informal contexts. Social deviance is a phenomenon that has existed in all societies with norms. Crime : The study of social deviance is the study of the violation of cultural norms in either formal or informal contexts. Social deviance is a phenomenon that has existed in all societies where there have been norms. Four main sociological theories of deviance exist.

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Christophe S.
28.04.2021 at 06:07 - Reply

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