Educational Theorists List And Their Contributions Pdf


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Below, you will find a brief outline of each educational learning theory, along with links to resources that may be helpful.

Although there are many different approaches to learning, there are three basic types of learning theory: behaviorist, cognitive constructivist, and social constructivist. This section provides a brief introduction to each type of learning theory.

Here is a list of references on child development theorists. Growth and development occur in orderly stages and sequence. The individual genetic timetable affects rate of maturation. Behaviour is controlled by unconscious urges. Three components of the mind are id, ego and super ego.

Child development theorists

The curriculum is one of the most effective tools for bridging the gap between education and development. However, there is little to no normative guidance on what constitutes a well-balanced responsive curriculum at different levels of education.

Education systems and by implication curricula are under relentless pressure to demonstrate relevance and responsiveness to national, regional, and global development challenges. Research evidence on the nature of learning is impressively accumulating and at a fast pace.

However, this impressively accumulating wealth of knowledge is not being effectively applied to improve practice in the facilitation of learning. While indispensable to quality improvement efforts, curriculum and learning depend on the effective and efficient functioning of other elements of an education system. A systemic approach is therefore required to analyse critical impediments and implement responsive interventions. There is a need to deepen the understanding of curriculum and to reconceptualise it as a tool to enhance and democratize learning opportunities within a lifelong learning perspective.

In order to effectively carry out our core mandate and progressively become the UNESCO Centre of Excellence in Curriculum and related matters, we aim at constantly strengthening our delivery capacity. Inclusive dialogue is a precondition for consensus on the value of the curriculum to global education and development efforts.

The IBE leads in generating opportunities for intellectual discussion aimed at recognising the still understated potential of curriculum to democratize learning and to create lifelong opportunities for all. Substantial curriculum investments must yield regenerative and sustainable results. This means over time countries must be able to strengthen their own curriculum development capabilities.

Acknowledging this, the IBE provides enabling support through knowledge-sharing, skills transfer, policy and technical advice, and professional development courses, among other strategies. Education stakeholders have come to rely on mounting research evidence on teaching and learning that, ironically, is challenging to obtain and often written in scientific language not easily understood in common terms. At IBE we identify, select, and interpret research findings for policy-making and practical application in curriculum and learning.

The IBE Documentation Centre collects and makes available documentation and information pertaining to the content of education, curriculum development and teaching methods. Resources collected at the Documentation Centre are part of the IBE knowledge base on curricula and education systems. Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how this process takes place. The scientific study of learning started in earnest at the dawn of the 20th century. The major concepts and theories of learning include behaviourist theories, cognitive psychology, constructivism, social constructivism, experiential learning, multiple intelligence, and situated learning theory and community of practice.

The behaviourist perspectives of learning originated in the early s, and became dominant in early 20th century. The basic idea of behaviourism is that learning consists of a change in behaviour due to the acquisition, reinforcement and application of associations between stimuli from the environment and observable responses of the individual. Behaviourists are interested in measurable changes in behaviour.

Thorndike, one major behaviourist theorist, put forward that 1 a response to a stimulus is reinforced when followed by a positive rewarding effect, and 2 a response to a stimulus becomes stronger by exercise and repetition. In his view, rewarding the right parts of the more complex behaviour reinforces it, and encourages its recurrence. Therefore, reinforcers control the occurrence of the desired partial behaviours. Learning is understood as the step-by-step or successive approximation of the intended partial behaviours through the use of reward and punishment.

Cognitive psychology was initiated in the late s, and contributed to the move away from behaviourism. People are no longer viewed as collections of responses to external stimuli, as understood by behaviourists, but information processors.

Cognitive psychology paid attention to complex mental phenomena, ignored by behaviourists, and was influenced by the emergence of the computer as an information-processing device, which became analogous to the human mind. In cognitive psychology, learning is understood as the acquisition of knowledge: the learner is an information-processor who absorbs information, undertakes cognitive operations on it, and stocks it in memory.

Therefore, its preferred methods of instruction are lecturing and reading textbooks; and, at its most extreme, the learner is a passive recipient of knowledge by the teacher. Constructivism emerged in the s and s, giving rise to the idea that learners are not passive recipients of information, but that they actively construct their knowledge in interaction with the environment and through the reorganization of their mental structures.

Learners are therefore viewed as sense-makers, not simply recording given information but interpreting it. The growing evidence in support of the constructive nature of learning was also in line with and backed by the earlier work of influential theorists such as Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner. A well-known social learning theory has been developed by Albert Bandura, who works within both cognitive and behavioural frameworks that embrace attention, memory and motivation.

His theory of learning suggests that people learn within a social context, and that learning is facilitated through concepts such as modeling, observational learning and imitation. The importance of positive role modeling on learning is well documented. Criticism against the information-processing constructivist approach to cognition and learning became stronger as the pioneer work of Vygotsky as well as anthropological and ethnographic research by scholars like Rogoff and Lave came to the fore and gathered support.

The essence of this criticism was that the information-processing constructivism saw cognition and learning as processes occurring within the mind in isolation from the surrounding and interaction with it.

Knowledge was considered as self-sufficient and independent of the contexts in which it finds itself. In the new view, cognition and learning are understood as interactions between the individual and a situation; knowledge is considered as situated and is a product of the activity, context and culture in which it is formed and utilized.

Experiential learning theories build on social and constructivist theories of learning, but situate experience at the core of the learning process.

They aim to understand the manners in which experiences — whether first or second hand — motivate learners and promote their learning. He supports a dynamic, continuous process of change where new learning results in and affects learning environments. This dynamic process of change is often considered in literatures on organizational learning. His theory also challenges the understanding of intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. These intelligences include: 1 logical-mathematical, 2 linguistic, 3 spatial, 4 musical, 5 bodily-kinesthetic, 6 interpersonal, and 7 intrapersonal.

Although his work is speculative, his theory is appreciated by teachers in broadening their conceptual framework beyond the traditional confines of skilling, curriculum and testing. The recognition of multiple intelligences, for Gardner, is a means to achieving educational goals rather than an educational goal in and of itself. They are developed by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger. Situated learning theory recognizes that there is no learning which is not situated, and emphasizes the relational and negotiated character of knowledge and learning as well as the engaged nature of learning activity for the individuals involved.

According to the theory, it is within communities that learning occurs most effectively. Interactions taking place within a community of practice — e. Thomas Sergiovanni reinforces the idea that learning is most effective when it takes place in communities. He argues that academic and social outcomes will improve only when classrooms become learning communities, and teaching becomes learner-centered.

Communities of practice are of course not confined to schools but cover other settings such as workplace and organizations. Exploration of 21st century learning or skills has emerged from the concern about transforming the goals and daily practice of learning to meet the new demands of the 21st century, which is characterized as knowledge- and technologically driven. The current discussion about 21st century skills leads classrooms and other learning environments to encourage the development of core subject knowledge as well as new media literacies, critical and systems thinking, interpersonal and self-directional skills.

For example, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills P21 defines the following as key: core subjects e. English, math, geography, history, civics and 21st century themes global awareness, civic literacy, health literacy, environmental literacy, financial, business and entrepreneurial literacy ; learning and innovation skills creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, communication and collaboration ; information, media and technology skills e.

ICT literacy, media literacy ; and life and career skills flexibility and adaptability, initiative and self-direction, social and cross-cultural skills, productivity and accountability, leadership and responsibility.

One main learning method that supports the learning of such skills and knowledge is group learning or thematic projects, which involves an inquiry-based collaborative work that addresses real-world issues and questions.

Source: The Office of Learning and Teaching, Mission: To provide support and promote innovative solutions to the challenges faced by ministries of education and governments in the complex task of improving equity, quality, relevance and effectiveness of curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment processes and outcomes.

Read more. Communities and networks For the IBE to be the Global Centre of Excellence in curriculum it is essential to strengthen partnerships, enhance collaboration and improve networking opportunities focusing on key actors and strategic partners, particularly curriculum specialists and curriculum development centres.

History The IBE was established in , as a private, non-governmental organisation, by leading Swiss educators to provide intellectual leadership and to promote international cooperation in education. Lead innovation in curriculum and learning Address critical and current issues Strengthen the analytical knowledge base Ensure quality and relevance of education and learning Lead global dialogue on curriculum Institutional and organizational development Lead innovation in curriculum and learning The curriculum is one of the most effective tools for bridging the gap between education and development.

Address critical and current issues Education systems and by implication curricula are under relentless pressure to demonstrate relevance and responsiveness to national, regional, and global development challenges. Strengthen the analytical knowledge base Research evidence on the nature of learning is impressively accumulating and at a fast pace. Ensure quality and relevance of education and learning While indispensable to quality improvement efforts, curriculum and learning depend on the effective and efficient functioning of other elements of an education system.

Lead global dialogue on curriculum There is a need to deepen the understanding of curriculum and to reconceptualise it as a tool to enhance and democratize learning opportunities within a lifelong learning perspective. Institutional and organizational development In order to effectively carry out our core mandate and progressively become the UNESCO Centre of Excellence in Curriculum and related matters, we aim at constantly strengthening our delivery capacity.

Global dialogue and intellectual leadership Capacity development Knowledge creation and management IBE Documentation Centre Global dialogue and intellectual leadership Inclusive dialogue is a precondition for consensus on the value of the curriculum to global education and development efforts.

Capacity development Substantial curriculum investments must yield regenerative and sustainable results. Knowledge creation and management Education stakeholders have come to rely on mounting research evidence on teaching and learning that, ironically, is challenging to obtain and often written in scientific language not easily understood in common terms.

IBE Documentation Centre The IBE Documentation Centre collects and makes available documentation and information pertaining to the content of education, curriculum development and teaching methods. Content Section. Most influential theories of learning. Behaviourism The behaviourist perspectives of learning originated in the early s, and became dominant in early 20th century.

Cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology was initiated in the late s, and contributed to the move away from behaviourism. Constructivism Constructivism emerged in the s and s, giving rise to the idea that learners are not passive recipients of information, but that they actively construct their knowledge in interaction with the environment and through the reorganization of their mental structures.

Social learning theory A well-known social learning theory has been developed by Albert Bandura, who works within both cognitive and behavioural frameworks that embrace attention, memory and motivation. Experiential learning Experiential learning theories build on social and constructivist theories of learning, but situate experience at the core of the learning process.

15 Learning Theories in Education (A Complete Summary)

The posting below profiles several of the key learning theories and their theorists that inform much of our current teaching and learning. Boettcher,and Rita-Marie Conrad. Wiley Company. Reprinted with permission. The principles, practices, and tips in this book are grounded in learning theory, principles, and research. More specifically, the tips in this book build extensively on constructivism, the philosophy that learners actively construct and create their personalized knowledge structures from the interaction of three inputs: what they already know; what they pay attention to in their environment, including language, people, and images; and what they process deeply.

January 22, Staff Writers. Educational psychologists study learners and learning contexts — both within and beyond traditional classrooms — and evaluate ways in which factors such as age, culture, gender, and physical and social environments influence human learning. They leverage educational theory and practice based on the latest research related to human development to understand the emotional, cognitive, and social aspects of human learning. Educational psychology can influence programs, curricula, and lesson development, as well as classroom management approaches. In addition, educational psychologists play an important role in educating teachers, parents, and administrators about best practices for learners who struggle with conventional education methods. However, educational psychologists can also pursue careers as researchers, consultants, and teachers in a variety of contexts, including schools, community organizations, government research centers, and learning centers.


None of these theories gives a teacher all the information needed to make instructional decisions. Each theory provides insight into a different aspect of learning.


The Five Educational Learning Theories

The curriculum is one of the most effective tools for bridging the gap between education and development. However, there is little to no normative guidance on what constitutes a well-balanced responsive curriculum at different levels of education. Education systems and by implication curricula are under relentless pressure to demonstrate relevance and responsiveness to national, regional, and global development challenges.

Constructivism (philosophy of education)

Constructivism is a theory in education that recognizes learners construct new understandings and knowledge, integrating with what they already know.

Introduction to Educational Psychology Theory

So what are educational learning theories and how can we use them in our teaching practice? There are so many out there, how do we know which are still relevant and which will work for our classes? In this article you will find a breakdown of each one and an explanation of the 15 most influential learning theories; from Vygotsky to Piaget and Bloom to Maslow and Bruner. By Paul Stevens-Fulbrook. Since Plato, many theorists have emerged, all with their different take on how students learn.

Experts in medicine and science have marveled for decades over the ways in which children develop. In response to such questions, many theories have abounded. The following five child development theories are among some of the most expertly recognized and utilized today.


Part of the Educational Psychology Commons from ecars2020.org~​eushe2/Bandura/ecars2020.org Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and contributions to the development of constructivist curricula. Huitt () identified a list of moral and character attributes/traits as the focus for K schools.


5 Theories of Child Development

Vision and Mission

 Какому соглашению? - Немец слышал рассказы о коррупции в испанской полиции. - У вас есть кое-что, что мне очень нужно, - сказал Беккер. - Да-да, конечно, - быстро проговорил немец, натужно улыбаясь. Он подошел к туалетному столику, где лежал бумажник.  - Сколько. Беккер изобразил крайнюю степень негодования. - Вы хотите дать взятку представителю закона? - зарычал .

В какой бы стране вы ни находились, во всех учреждениях действует одно и то же правило: никто долго не выдерживает звонка телефонного аппарата. Не важно, сколько посетителей стоят в очереди, - секретарь всегда бросит все дела и поспешит поднять трубку. Беккер отбил шестизначный номер. Еще пара секунд, и его соединили с больничным офисом. Наверняка сегодня к ним поступил только один канадец со сломанным запястьем и сотрясением мозга, и его карточку нетрудно будет найти.

 Мне больно! - задыхаясь, крикнула Сьюзан. Она судорожно ловила ртом воздух, извиваясь в руках Хейла. Он хотел было отпустить ее и броситься к лифту Стратмора, но это было бы чистым безумием: все равно он не знает кода. Кроме того, оказавшись на улице без заложницы, он обречен. Даже его безукоризненный лотос беспомощен перед эскадрильей вертолетов Агентства национальной безопасности. Сьюзан - это единственное, что не позволит Стратмору меня уничтожить.

Первая неделя оказалась последней.

Она точно знала, что на такой пароль уходит меньше десяти минут. - Должно ведь быть какое-то объяснение. - Оно есть, - кивнул Стратмор.  - Тебя оно не обрадует. - В ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ сбой.

 Она хотела его продать. - Не волнуйся, приятель, ей это не удалось.

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