Johnson And Scholes Cultural Web PdfBy Christelle L. In and pdf 19.04.2021 at 13:54 8 min read
File Name: johnson and scholes cultural web .zip
- Organizational culture
- Developing the organisational culture in a healthcare setting
- Analysing the hidden curriculum: use of a cultural web
The Cultural Web is a tool used to map the culture of an organisation and is a way of seeing and understating the different influences that affect organisational culture.
This article aims to define organisational culture and explain why it is important to patients, carers and those working in healthcare environments. Organisational culture is not a new concept and the literature on the subject is well-established. The article seeks to assist nurses in understanding the role of organisational culture, as well as implementing its main principles in the workplace.
These influences can contribute positively or negatively towards the professional enculturation of clinical students. The fact that there is no validated method for identifying the components of the hidden curriculum poses problems for educators considering professionalism. The aim of this study was to analyse whether a cultural web, adapted from a business context, might assist in the identification of elements of the hidden curriculum at a UK veterinary school.
Seven focus groups consisting of three staff groups and four student groups were organised. Questioning was framed using the cultural web, which is a model used by business owners to assess their environment and consider how it affects their employees and customers. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of a priori and emergent themes.
These included: core assumptions; routines; rituals; control systems; organisational factors; power structures, and symbols. These aspects aligned broadly with previously described factors such as role models and institutional slang. The framework is promising for the analysis of the hidden curriculum and could be developed as an instrument for implementation in other clinical teaching environments.
Similar changes are also occurring in other clinical training programmes, including in dentistry, 3 pharmacy 4 and veterinary medicine.
The teaching of professionalism is challenging, not least because of the difficulties of defining the attributes to be included in this complex skill set. This environment has several contexts, including that of the relatively uncontrollable workplace. No matter how well taught professionalism is, it is possible for the influence of the culture and environment — the hidden curriculum — to undermine the work of well-intentioned teachers.
Theoretical discussions around the nature of professionalism or how it should be taught have therefore been criticised when the influence of the hidden curriculum is ignored. Hidden influences include elements such as role models, rules and regulations, the use of institutional slang and resource allocation.
Business analysts use cultural models as a means of recognising customer perceptions and develop strategy accordingly. One particular model, the cultural web Fig. This model is used to organise information from employees and customers in order to provide an overview of strategy. The applicability of these elements in the educational context can easily be recognised. Although the elements of the hidden curriculum and its importance as a concept are often discussed, this dimension of the curriculum is rarely formally assessed despite the need to establish whether remediation may be necessary.
Hafferty 8 discusses four domains for examination policy development, evaluation, resource allocation and institutional slang , but how this examination should be carried out is not detailed.
Specific attempts have been made to analyse the hidden curriculum within institutions, but without an established methodology for doing so, this is difficult. However, students may not be completely reliable in their ability to identify these influences as their understanding of professionalism may be variable. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies that systematically collect data from multiple stakeholders is probably the most effective strategy, but this may be unfeasible for many institutions and, again, has not been validated sufficiently.
The hidden curriculum reaches far beyond the lecture theatre and, particularly in clinical education, encompasses numerous environments and contexts. It is not generally included in standard course evaluations, despite the implications of its influence on teaching and learning.
This may be because analysis is not straightforward. The overall aim of this study therefore was to attempt to use a cultural web, adapted from the business context, as a framework for identifying elements of the hidden curriculum in one veterinary medicine school in the UK. The analysis placed particular focus on the elements that influence the development of professional identity in order to assess the influence of the hidden curriculum on this process.
The study then considered how the school should manage these elements and assessed the usefulness of this methodology. The institution under study is a new veterinary medicine and science school in the UK, which graduated its first cohort of 95 students in The final year of study is delivered through a community-based model, using university-employed faculty staff to teach in regional veterinary practices covering the full range of species and specialties. A qualitative approach using focus groups was chosen in order to establish perceptions of staff and students within the school.
A total of seven groups were led by an independent researcher staff groups and a trained student researcher student groups. It was hoped that the use of a student researcher and the consequent absence of an authority figure would help the student groups feel more able to contribute. Selection for the groups was carried out using a combination of stratified random and purposive sampling, and participation was voluntary. Each contributor gave individual consent and his or her anonymity was assured.
Johnson et al. The participants were introduced to the themes in the web and the facilitators used a semi-structured approach to discuss the non-overt influences within the curriculum in each category. Discussion around the potential for these factors to manipulate the development of behaviours in students was encouraged.
Focus group discussions were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken using a combination of a priori themes derived from the model developed by Johnson et al. NVivo Version 8. Initial analysis was undertaken by two researchers until agreement was reached on the first two transcripts. Analysis was completed by a single researcher once the coding had been confirmed.
An iterative process was used to draw out themes of interest and relevance to the area under study. These themes were then cross-checked for similarities and differences, and grouped together accordingly across the a priori themes. The sampling strategy employed ensured the three staff focus groups consisted of a cross-section of the staff population by age, gender and role within the school. Both academic and support staff were represented.
The student groups included a cross-section of students according to age, year of study and gender. The cultural model appeared to successfully shape data collection and analysis; several distinct themes emerged within the a priori codes and are represented diagrammatically in Fig.
Issues contributing to the hidden curriculum identified using the cultural web 22 as a model. Participants in all groups were quick to identify the core beliefs and strategies of the school. Several themes in relation to this emerged, with particular reference to the feeling of community within the school.
Staff and students identified a team-like atmosphere:. Everybody seems to be working together as a team to achieve the same goals. Everybody seems to be friendly and very welcoming. Participants judged their environment as innovative and experimental, as might be expected in a new school; risk taking was discussed as an element of this:. This discussion about the school as an innovative community seemed to encourage participants to identify differences between it and other environments they had experienced, reinforcing the community theme:.
Participants agreed that there was an awareness within the school of the need to work hard. Students discussed the rigours of a full timetable and examination schedule, and staff commented on the workloads of both their own roles and students. A sense of pride emerged in discussions about what the school had achieved, and with reference to being a member of an identified community.
The feeling of belonging to the school was very important and staff were able to recognise this within the student body:. The school was described as being friendly and relaxed, within both the staff and student bodies, as well as in relations between them:. Faculty staff participants expressed the belief that a core paradigm referred to a focus on, and respect for, teaching, sometimes to the detriment of research activities:.
Participants were asked to discuss routines they identified as part of the day-to-day activities of the school and as reflecting the way things are done.
Somewhat ironically, an emerging theme concerned the lack of routine within the school, with the exception of timetabling, which was perceived by students as extremely strict:. An informal approach in the routine of the school was felt to prevail on occasion and represented something students struggled to manage:. Apart from in correspondence. Or everyone will be called by their full title kind of thing. Something just a bit more structured than kind of it flip-flopping every five minutes.
The groups were asked to describe what they felt constituted a ritual within the school with reference to an event or activity with meaning that had influenced themselves or others.
There was some discussion in the student groups about students who took part in rituals such as the annual student cabaret, and how this affected staff:. And it sort of shows the lecturers that, because obviously there are some people that are always going to be in it, and some people that will probably never be in it. There was also dialogue around socialising generally between students and staff, and how this represented an important ritual.
The concept of control of the school, through external sources, was discussed; an emergent theme concerned a mixture of compliance and conflict, whereby the school is able to act independently of the central university, but still must comply with certain regulations, or does comply for different reasons:.
So you have to have different things. But I think it sort of just comes down, fed down through the faculty and then back to the school. Awareness of the existence of a separate identity also falls into the theme of control, discussions of which overlapped with those around conflict and compliance. Members of the school generally felt that the school was very distinct from the central university, both geographically and psychologically:.
The staff groups also discussed wider issues of control beyond that of the university as an institution. Some felt that the current political situation would result in the encroaching of control from other sources, such as students who are empowered by their payment of higher fees and whose expectations are consequently changed.
Discussion around the structure of the school from within centred on several themes. Communication within the school was perceived very differently. Some felt that communication was generally good, whereas others were aware of changes associated with the growth of the school, and issues with rumours emerging within the student body:. And then just telling you properly. The issue of social groupings arose as a theme in different contexts.
Staff discussed student integration between years, and referred to the emergence of groups that perhaps did not encourage communication and mixing. Also within the theme of routines was a prominent issue referring to how staff and students interact within the school, and how this was interpreted, particularly with reference to social events:.
There is not one big distance between staff and the students if you want to play football against each other or do bicycle racing. So I think this is really an important part of student—staff relations. However, the subject of this interaction elicited some questions and storytelling from students and it was apparent that some students struggled to identify social barriers and boundaries in certain situations. The ability of students to exert influence and control the school was discussed.
Support available within the school arose as a topic in discussion about organisation. Staff felt students were able to access a huge amount of support to help them complete a demanding course, and students equally valued this aspect of the culture and did not feel afraid to access it:.
The theme of power was discussed extensively in the groups. Opinions on who was in control of the school and how others reacted to this varied. There was dialogue regarding the presence or lack of a hierarchy within both staff and students. Who do I go to?
Developing the organisational culture in a healthcare setting
Strategy and development in an organisation are influenced heavily by the culture and environment. This is often positive, but it can also act as a hindrance, or even a barrier to growth and success. Published by authors and academics in the fields of business, leadership and management, Kevan Scholes and Gerry Johnson in , the Cultural Web is a useful tool for analysing and altering assumptions surrounding the culture of a company. They suggested that each may be examined and analysed individually to gain a clearer picture of the wider cultural issues of an organisation. The six contributing elements with example questions used to examine the organisation at hand are as follows:. These are the previous events — both accurate and not — which are discussed by individuals within and outside the company. Which events and people are remembered by the company indicates what the company values, and what it chooses to immortalise through stories.
Johnson's Cultural Web () with contributions from various researchers. Rituals & Routines and groups (Johnson and Scholes, ); which form subcultures. final_for_publication_pdf (accessed 6. September ).
Analysing the hidden curriculum: use of a cultural web
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This article provides a practical explanation of the Cultural Web Analysis. After reading this article, you will understand the basics of this powerful management and organisational culture tool. The Cultural Web Analysis is a model where the organisational paradigm, convictions and assumptions within an organisation are clarified by means of a coherent whole of six elements. The paradigm, the organisational culture , exists within the web.
We have used our powerful tool the Cultural Web to help managers address the challenge of strategy driven cultural change. Our Cultural Web was originated by Gerry Johnson and it is explained in several of his publications. Culture , Organisational , Mapping , Mapping and re mapping organisational , Mapping and re mapping organisational culture. Link to this page:.
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