Handbook Of Recycled Concrete And Demolition Waste Pdf


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handbook of recycled concrete and demolition waste pdf

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Haynes ManualsThe Haynes Tam, Yining Ding Description:The civil engineering sector accounts for a significant percentage of global material and energy consumption and is a major contributor of waste material.

By Elsevier Science. Its implementation was investigated through a survey and structured interviews. The main benefits were found to be the on-site reuse of materials and methods for reducing waste. Financial incentives and costs present major difficulties and the use of prefabricated building components was considered as the most effective measure in encouraging the implementation of WMP.

Handbook of recycled concrete and demolition waste

By Elsevier Science. Its implementation was investigated through a survey and structured interviews. The main benefits were found to be the on-site reuse of materials and methods for reducing waste. Financial incentives and costs present major difficulties and the use of prefabricated building components was considered as the most effective measure in encouraging the implementation of WMP.

Historically, waste management in the construction industry has not been successfully controlled and much work remains to be done if a satisfactory standard is to be reached.

Construction waste in places such as Hong Kong was commonly dumped in landfills. However, landfill space is expected to run out in the next few years Hong Kong Government — Environmental Protection Department, , and there is an urgent need to discover alternative methods of waste management. The Hong Kong Government has employed various waste control measures during the past few years, including:.

The use of a new scheme using WMP methodology has received negative feedback from the industry. Construction organisations complained of procedures which had a damaging effect on their productivity and were impractical to implement. The method therefore appears to be ineffective in construction projects. This chapter focuses on the examination of waste generated in construction and on the existing waste controlling measures employed by the Hong Kong Government.

It explores the effectiveness and difficulties of the existing WMP methodology and proposes ways of addressing the problems which exist in the implementing of WMP methods. There has been an overwhelming promotion of waste management tools and sustainable development activities in recent years.

As a result, there is a growing awareness of waste management issues and the potential problems from negative impacts on the environment. Construction is not an environmentally friendly activity.

Comprehensive reviews were encouraged to provide waste management measures in construction activities Tam et al. Various factors affect the environment, including land use and deterioration, resource depletion, waste generation and various forms of pollution Tam et al.

Treatment of construction waste is more closely regulated by the government decision Ref no. The main points in the decision are:. Finally, all parties involved in the cycle of building materials or the building itself are responsible for waste resulting from the use, maintenance, refurbishment or demolition of a structure in the construction industry, the building materials industry, the back building industry and the recycling industry.

The Ministry is informed of success and progress resulting from self-commitment by monitoring. It requires clients and contractors to produce agreements which obligate sorting and recycling activities for particular projects and materials.

The materials concerned include concrete, wood and asphalt concrete. The main contractors are required to prepare a demolition plan before beginning activities, report the completion of recycling and record the results of recycling to the clients. A lack of documentation on deposition results in heavy fines.

This has resulted in a dramatic increase of turnover for recycling companies. The legislation objectives are summarised in a waste hierarchy, which runs from the most to the least efficient measures: prevention, reuse, recycling, energy recovery and adequate waste disposal.

This aims to improve efficiency and profitability, reduce fly-tipping, and increase the environmental awareness of workforce and management. The government of Hong Kong implemented a variety of regulations and methods, which aimed to minimise waste production. Among them, the mandatory system of implementing the WMP method in all construction projects has received varied feedback during its trial period.

Some contractors found the WMP method to be useful and effective. The contractor managers required site staff to carry out monthly reviews, with checks to ensure that operations on-site follow the plan provided Poon et al.

Many construction organisations lack sufficient experience in drafting to use the WMP method. Companies also found difficulties in recycling construction materials on site.

The following were identified as critical factors for successful waste management:. The choice of waste management strategies takes into consideration sustainable development objectives, including economic aspects, environmental consequences and social issues.

Researchers from developed economies have made significant contributions to research in the discipline. A survey was conducted to examine the effectiveness of existing requirements in implementing the WMP method for all construction projects. The survey was sent to parties including contractors, consultants, developers, governmental departments and environmental professional associations.

Seventy-eight were received and the response rate was around However, two of the questionnaires were not properly completed and only 76 were therefore valid. The respondents can be classified into five categories, G1 to G5. The mean values of the five groups were derived first. Then the values were tested for concordance between groups and an F-test performed with a demarcation level of significance at 0. The test was used to assess any similarity of opinion on the issues of waste management practices between groups.

After the questionnaire responses were received, individual structured interviews were arranged with eight respondents selected from different business sectors: one from a government department, one from a building developer, one from an environmental consultant, two from registered building contractors, two from registered specialised contractors and one from a professional environmental association.

The interviews were intended for the gathering of further comments to elaborate upon and interpret the results obtained from the questionnaire and would reduce the limitations arising from the low response rates from G4 and G5.

Interviews with governmental staff indicate that recycling concrete waste to be used as recycled aggregate and as new concrete construction materials, are new directions for the construction industry.

This offers opportunities to reduce landfill and improve the environment. In considering the willingness of various parties to minimise waste, results show government to be the most willing at around A contractor explained in an interview discussion that implementing waste management requires considerable investment in the early stages of projects, including implementing site planning, the use of environmentally friendly materials and the installation of waste management facilities and equipment.

These were the main factors affecting his willingness to undertake waste minimisation. One of the contractors explained that a low tendering price effectively helps them to award projects and that companies increase their profits if they can lower construction costs. A member of a professional environmental association argued that implementing waste management may help in achieving a long-term cost saving goal, although it will increase the short-time investment cost. A government staff member agreed that the lowest tendering price is commonly considered the most important factor in awarding a project.

However, a new trend from government is to require all tendering contractors to provide documentation on waste management awareness, including the implementation of an ISO environmental management system. A member of a professional environmental association pointed out that the association had received assistance in implementing the method from construction organisations.

It was clear that those construction organisations lack experience in using the WMP method for their projects. Once sufficient experience is gained, their waste levels will be lowered. Survey results on reducing waste production in implementing a waste-management-plan method.

During interview discussions with a building contractor and a specialised contractor, it was explained that most construction organisations lack experience in implementing the method, and find it too time-consuming to draft their WMP methods.

On-site applications also affect implementation, which need to be continuously revised. A member of a professional environmental association recommended periodic auditing of waste generated from various construction activities to help construction organisations in providing early on-site WMP or making modifications to an existing management system.

The audits should cover all aspects of waste related activities, including waste generation, storage, recycling, transport and disposal. Implementation of the WMP method delivers several benefits.

Pollution prevention, better allocation of resources, better regulatory compliance, evaluation of risks and plans for preventing potential problems can be achieved Tibor, Previous studies have identified a number of benefits in implementing the method for construction Jasch, ; Kuhre, ; Tam et al, a.

The results of F statistics show all benefits to be consistent among the five groups of respondents. It is clear that all groups provided the same arguments for the benefits in implementing the method. A registered building contractor pointed out that he designed a detailed methodology in reusing, recycling and reducing major types of construction waste, including concrete, tiles, steel, glass and plastic.

He claimed that these methods may be effectively used in planning the use of materials and reducing material consumption. Some local examples in material recycling are also recommended by the Hong Kong Government Hong Kong Government — Environmental Protection Department, , for example, the use of recycled aggregate as a sub-base material for road construction, of asphalt as aggregate fill and sub-base, and glass as a substitute for sand and aggregate in pipe-bedding materials.

A contractor claimed that most construction organisations try to minimise waste in other ways, including the use of prefabricated building components and reducing the use of wet trades, before reusing or recycling construction waste. Although there are several benefits in implementing the WMP method, many construction organisations find the implementation difficult.

The principal reason is the high investment costs, such as resource input for training courses Shen and Tam, Other major difficulties include lack of resources and expertise, lack of staff involvement and poor co-ordination between government, industry and business Chan and Li, The mean score for G4 governmental departments and developers is 5. In discussions with one of the developers, it was claimed that most clients still saw reducing cost as their main aim, although the reduction of waste generation is becoming a significant trend in the construction industry.

A developer claimed in interview that investment in implementing waste management may prove a burden for them in improving the environment. However, he also pointed out that large developers may be eager to implement waste management, as it can improve their image and reputation with the public and industry.

As facilities and equipment need to be provided on site, the investment cost will increase in the short term. These difficulties can only be alleviated in the long term, when waste generation is reduced and savings improved. A registered specialised contractor explained that many academic professionals, for example, Green Council, Hong Kong Productivity Council and Centre of Environmental Technology, are actively organising environmentally related seminars and conferences.

These training programmes can help in improving knowledge of waste management and providing proper training for different levels of employees. Previous studies have identified a number of ways of encouraging the implementation of the WMP method in construction activities. Applying environmentally friendly technology on site is one of the most effective measures of improving waste management Tan et al. Chen et al. The F statistics results show all the effective measures identified to be consistent among the five groups of respondents.

It is clear that all groups provide the same arguments on effective measures for implementing the method. Using prefabricated building components instead of wet trade construction can significantly reduce waste generation. A building contractor clarified at interview that reducing waste generation is the best option in implementing waste management, reusing and recycling being the only alternative methods for reducing waste on site.

A building contractor also explained that if an organisation has senior management support in implementing waste management, environmental awareness for their projects can easily be enhanced, thus significantly reducing waste generation.

Waste management is a burning issue in the Hong Kong construction industry, which is one of the biggest polluting sectors in the region. The WMP method was introduced in Hong Kong in and initially received negative feedback from the industry. This paper has examined the effectiveness in implementing the WMP method in the construction industry. The questionnaire surveys and structured interview discussions show the government to be the most willing party in waste minimisation.

The major problem for other parties is the high investment cost. The use of prefabricated building components was found to be the most effective means of encouraging implementation.

Handbook of Recycled Concrete and Demolition Waste

The construction industry generates a considerable amount of waste. Faced with this undesirable situation, the ready-mix concrete sector, in particular, has invested energy and resources into reusing its own waste in its production process as it works towards the goal of more sustainable construction. This study examines the feasibility of incorporating two types of concrete waste, which currently end up in landfill, into the production process of ready-mix concrete: the waste generated during the initial production stage ready-mix concrete waste , and waste created when demolition waste is treated to obtain artificial aggregate. After this phase, the impact of incorporating different percentages of recycled coarse aggregate is evaluated by examining the performance of the produced concrete. The results indicate that recycled aggregates are, indeed, suitable to be incorporated into ready-mix concrete production. The results indicate that with adequate management and prior treatment, the waste from these plants can be re-incorporated into their production processes. If concrete waste is re-used, concrete production, in general, becomes more sustainable for two reasons: less waste ends up as landfill and the consumption of natural aggregates is also reduced.

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recycling of concrete pdf

Haynes ManualsThe Haynes Tam, Yining Ding Description:The civil engineering sector accounts for a significant percentage of global material and energy consumption and is a major contributor of waste material. The ability to recycle and reuse concrete and demolition waste is critical to reducing environmental impacts meeting national, regional and global environmental targets. The editors and expert contributors summarize recent research in achieving these goals. Part one considers techniques for managing construction and demolition waste, including waste management plans, ways of estimating levels of waste, the types and optimal location of waste recycling plants, and the economics of managing construction and demolition waste.

Chapter 7: Conventional demolition versus deconstruction techniques in managing construction and demolition waste CDW. Chapter 8: Demolition techniques and production of construction and demolition waste CDW for recycling. Chapter Use of construction and demolition waste CDW for alkali-activated or geopolymer cements. Part IV: Environmental issues affecting recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste. Chapter An effective approach to utilize recycled aggregates RAs from alkali-silica reaction ASR affected Portland cement concrete.

Haynes ManualsThe Haynes Tam, Yining Ding Description:The civil engineering sector accounts for a significant percentage of global material and energy consumption and is a major contributor of waste material. The ability to recycle and reuse concrete and demolition waste is critical to reducing environmental impacts meeting national, regional and global environmental targets.

Recycling of waste concrete is done to reuse the concrete rubble as aggregates in concrete.

In the wet method, water is required to cool the diamo. By cutting concrete elements and then removing them by crane the demolition of an entire concrete structure may be carried out with a minimum of noise dust and impact on surrounding structures This may be done by sawing waterjetting or thermic lance and is a particularly good method of demolishing portions of a structure especially …. Demolition waste was obtained from a year-old resi-dential building. Recycled coarse aggregates were prepared by crushing the demolished concrete in a jaw crusher. Crusher products from each of the demolished concretes were screened into two sizes 20 and 10 mm [0. High-quality recycled aggregate satisfying the requirements of JIS A can be manufactured with these methods. Figure 4.

The extensive, but fragmented research on recycled concrete aggregates and recycled aggregate concrete, which has been carried out in various parts of the world from to , has been collated to form a comprehensive state-of-the-art document. A thorough analysis of the data has been made, leading to a guide to the production and evaluation of recycled concrete aggregates as well as the design, production, and use of recycled aggregate concrete. The present document will be followed up by another state-of-the-art report on recycled aggregate concrete produced with mixed demolition rubble as recycled aggregate. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Стратмор понял, что она смертельно напугана. Он спокойно подошел к двери, выглянул на площадку лестницы и всмотрелся в темноту. Хейла нигде не было. Тогда он вернулся в кабинет и прикрыл за собой дверь, затем заблокировал ее стулом, подошел к столу и достал что-то из выдвижного ящика. В тусклом свете мониторов Сьюзан увидела, что это, и побледнела. Он достал пистолет. Он выдвинул два стула на середину комнаты.


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Citas duplicadas

Джабба открыл рот. - Но, директор, ведь это… - Риск, - прервал его Фонтейн.  - Однако мы можем выиграть.  - Он взял у Джаббы мобильный телефон и нажал несколько кнопок.  - Мидж, - сказал.  - Говорит Лиланд Фонтейн. Слушайте меня внимательно… ГЛАВА 112 - Надеюсь, вы знаете, что делаете, директор, - холодно сказал Джабба.

Если нет, он войдет и будет двигаться на восток, держа в поле зрения правый угол, единственное место, где мог находиться Беккер. Он улыбнулся. ОБЪЕКТ: ДЭВИД БЕККЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Пора. Халохот проверил оружие, решительно направился вперед и осмотрел площадку. Левый угол пуст.

 Совсем мало, - сказал Джабба, посмотрев на монитор.  - Всего лишь какие-то обрывки, в полном виде -. Фонтейн медленно кивнул и улыбнулся одними уголками губ. Он искал глазами Сьюзан Флетчер, но она уже стояла прямо перед экраном, на котором крупным планом было видно лицо Дэвида Беккера. - Дэвид. - Привет, красавица.

Он подумал было попросить пилота радировать Стратмору, чтобы тот передал его послание Сьюзан, но не решился впутывать заместителя директора в их личные дела. Сам он трижды пытался связаться со Сьюзан - сначала с мобильника в самолете, но тот почему-то не работал, затем из автомата в аэропорту и еще раз - из морга. Сьюзан не было дома.

Халохот двигался быстро, но осторожно. Ступени были настолько крутыми, что на них нашли свою смерть множество туристов. Это вам не Америка - никаких предупреждающих знаков, никаких поручней, никаких табличек с надписями, что страховые компании претензий не принимают. Это Испания.

Молодой программист приходил когда-то в Нуматек, тогда он только что окончил колледж и искал работу, но Нуматака ему отказал. В том, что этот парень был блестящим программистом, сомнений не возникало, но другие обстоятельства тогда казались более важными. Хотя Япония переживала глубокие перемены, Нуматака оставался человеком старой закалки и жил в соответствии с кодексом менбоко - честь и репутация.

 Вы сказали, что он приходил. Беккер услышал, как его собеседница листает книгу заказов. Там не окажется никакого Клауса, но Беккер понимал, что клиенты далеко не всегда указывают свои подлинные имена. - Хм-м, извините, - произнесла женщина.

Он хочет поговорить с. Директор метнул на нее настороженный взгляд, но Мидж уже бежала к аппарату.

 Спутница? - бессмысленно повторил Беккер.  - Проститутка, что. Клушар поморщился: - Вот. Если вам угодно использовать это вульгарное слово.

Танкадо использовал наживку для дурачков… и АНБ ее проглотило. Сверху раздался душераздирающий крик Стратмора. ГЛАВА 86 Когда Сьюзан, едва переводя дыхание, появилась в дверях кабинета коммандера, тот сидел за своим столом, сгорбившись и низко опустив голову, и в свете монитора она увидела капельки пота у него на лбу.

Худоба и неловкость подростка бесследно исчезли. С годами она приобрела гибкость и грацию. У нее была высокая стройная фигура с пышной грудью и по-юношески плоским животом.

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19.05.2021 at 09:06 - Reply

The civil engineering sector accounts for a significant percentage of global material and energy consumption and is a major contributor of waste material.

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