Difference Between Phase I And Phase Ii Drug Metabolism Pdf


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difference between phase i and phase ii drug metabolism pdf

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Introduction to Drug Metabolism pp Cite as.

Commonly there are four types of reactions involved in drug metabolism. These are: oxidation reduction hydrolysis conjugation The first three are often lumped together as phase I reactions, while the fourth process, conjugation, is called phase II metabolism. A common scheme in the overall metabolism of drugs is that metabolites are metabolized. In particular a drug may be oxidized, reduced or hydrolyzed and then another group may be added in a conjugation step.

Drug metabolism

NCBI Bookshelf. Simone Phang-Lyn ; Valerie A. Llerena 2. Biotransformation is a metabolic process that takes place mainly in the liver and helps to facilitate the excretion of both exogenous and endogenous substances. A series of reactions alter the chemical structures of these substances.

Breast cancer is a complex disease which is provoked by a multitude of exogenous and endogenous factors including genetic variations. Recent genome-wide association studies identified a set of more than 18 novel low penetrant susceptibility loci, however, a limitation of this powerful approach is the hampered analysis of polymorphisms in DNA sequences with a high degree of similarity to other genes or pseudo genes. Since this common feature affects the majority of the highly polymorphic genes encoding phase I and II enzymes the retrieval of specific genotype data requires adapted amplification methods. With regard to breast cancer these genes are of certain interest due to their involvement in the metabolism of carcinogens like exogenous genotoxic compounds or steroid hormones. The present review summarizes the observed effects of functional genetic variants of phase I and II enzymes in well designed case control studies to shed light on their contribution to breast cancer risk. The implementation of cost effective high-throughput genotyping methods enables the determination of genotypes at large scale and fast pace.

Chapter 17

Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms , usually through specialized enzymatic systems. More generally, xenobiotic metabolism from the Greek xenos "stranger" and biotic "related to living beings" is the set of metabolic pathways that modify the chemical structure of xenobiotics , which are compounds foreign to an organism's normal biochemistry, such as any drug or poison. These pathways are a form of biotransformation present in all major groups of organisms and are considered to be of ancient origin. These reactions often act to detoxify poisonous compounds although in some cases the intermediates in xenobiotic metabolism can themselves cause toxic effects. The study of drug metabolism is called pharmacokinetics. The metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs is an important aspect of pharmacology and medicine.

Drug Metabolism

Phase I biotransformation reactions introduce or expose functional groups on the drug with the goal of increasing the polarity of the compound. Although Phase I drug metabolism occurs in most tissues, the primary and first pass site of metabolism occurs during hepatic circulation. Additional metabolism occurs in gastrointestinal epithelial, renal, skin, and lung tissues. Within cells, most phase I enzymes are located in the endoplasmic reticulum and thus are enriched in microsomal preparations.

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Topics on Drug Metabolism. All organisms are constantly and unavoidably exposed to xenobiotics including both man—made and natural chemicals such as drugs, plant alkaloids, microorganism toxins, pollutants, pesticides, and other industrial chemicals. Formally, biotransformation of xenobiotics as well as endogenous compounds is subdivided into phase I and phase II reactions.

Phase I Drug Metabolism

1. Introduction

Его сверхкритическую массу. - М-м… сто десять фунтов, - сказала Соши. - Сто десять? - оживился Джабба.  - Сколько будет сто десять минус тридцать пять и две десятых. - Семьдесят четыре и восемь десятых, - сказала Сьюзан.  - Но я не думаю… - С дороги! - закричал Джабба, рванувшись к клавиатуре монитора.

Пора переходить к решительным действиям. Немец рывком открыл дверь и собрался было закричать, но Беккер его опередил. Помахав карточкой теннисного клуба Мериленда, он рявкнул: - Полиция. После чего вошел в номер и включил свет. Немец не ожидал такого оборота. - Wasmachst… - Помолчите! - Беккер перешел на английский.  - У вас в номере проститутка? - Он оглядел комнату.

 Проваливай! - крикнула.  - Вон. Беккер совсем забыл о кольце, об Агентстве национальной безопасности, обо всем остальном, проникшись жалостью к девушке. Наверное, родители отправили ее сюда по какой-то школьной образовательной программе, снабдив кредитной карточкой Виза, а все кончилось тем, что она посреди ночи вкалывает себе в туалете наркотик. - Вы себя хорошо чувствуете? - спросил он, пятясь к двери.

Левый угол пуст. Следуя плану, он бросился в проход и, оказавшись внутри, лицом к правому углу, выстрелил. Пуля отскочила от голой стены и чуть не попала в него. Он стремительно развернулся и едва сдержал крик. Никого.

Он вытер их о брюки и попробовал. На этот раз створки двери чуть-чуть разошлись. Сьюзан, увидев, что дело пошло, попыталась помочь Стратмору.

Математики и программисты каждый день придумывают новые алгоритмы. На рынке их сотни -PGP, DifTie-Hellman, ZIP, IDEA, Е1 Gamal. ТРАНСТЕКСТ ежедневно без проблем взламы-вает эти шифры. Для него все шифры выглядят одинаково, независимо от алгоритма, на основе которого созданы.

И снова Стратмор нетерпеливым взмахом руки заставил ее замолчать. Сьюзан в испуге взглянула на Хейла. Он стоял с безучастным видом, словно происходящее его никак не касалось. И это понятно, - подумала .

Голос болезненно кашлянул.

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