Difference Between Socialism And Communism PdfBy Talon G. In and pdf 17.04.2021 at 16:27 10 min read
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Until the publication of their Communist Manifesto , much of the western world followed a course where individuals owned private property, business enterprises, and the profits that resulted from wise investments. Marx and Engels pointed out the uneven distribution of wealth in the capitalist world and predicted a worldwide popular uprising to distribute wealth evenly.
- Socialist mode of production
- The Differences Between Communism and Socialism
- Marx’s Concept of Socialism
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Socialist mode of production
Communism from Latin communis , 'common, universal'   is a philosophical , social , political , and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society , namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes , money   and the state.
Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism , its economic system and mode of production , namely that in this system there are two major social classes, conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society and this situation can only ultimately be resolved through a social revolution.
The two classes are the proletariat the working class , who make up the majority of the population within society and must work to survive; and the bourgeoisie the capitalist class , a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Along with social democracy , communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the s. Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme. Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine.
Communism may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with Marxism , most specifically embodied in The Communist Manifesto which proposed a particular type of communism.
One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay to Restif de la Bretonne around , in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste "communist author". Since the s, communism has usually been distinguished from socialism. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the s, becoming the predominant term over the words associationist , co-operative and mutualist which had previously been used as synonyms.
Instead, communism fell out of use during this period. An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production , whereas the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption in the form of free access to final goods. It was not until , with the Bolshevik Revolution , that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism , introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.
Both communism and socialism eventually accorded with the cultural attitude of adherents and opponents towards religion. In Christian Europe , communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England , the word communism was too phonetically similar to the Roman Catholic communion rite , hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.
The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx , "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc.
He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death". According to Richard Pipes , the idea of a classless , egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece.
Communist thought has also been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia , More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the Diggers advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. Following the upheaval of the French Revolution , communism later emerged as a political doctrine.
In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. Unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat —a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions.
Foremost among these critics were Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels. In , Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto. The October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin 's Bolsheviks which was the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position. The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets in which the Bolsheviks had a majority.
Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers.
Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule. The moderate Mensheviks minority opposed Lenin's Bolsheviks majority plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace, bread and land" which tapped into the massive public desire for an end to Russian involvement in World War I , the peasants' demand for land reform and popular support for the soviets.
Following Lenin's democratic centralism , the Leninist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base. They were made up only of elite cadres approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to party discipline.
The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. A Marxist—Leninist government was also created under Josip Broz Tito in Yugoslavia , but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded " deviationist ". The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States , although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do it at all.
On the previous day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers, including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes , to Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
That evening at , the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag. Previously from August to December , all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union.
The week before the union's formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol , formally establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea currently refers to its leading ideology as Juche which is portrayed as a development of Marxism—Leninism. Communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in several other countries. In Nepal , communists hold a majority in the parliament. The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the Maoist legacy, and along with Laos, Vietnam and to a lesser degree Cuba, has decentralized state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth.
In these countries, the land is a universal public monopoly administered by the state and so are natural resources and vital industries and services.
The public sector is the dominant sector in these economies and the state plays a central role in coordinating economic development.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Marxism uses a materialist methodology, referred to by Marx and Engels as the materialist conception of history and now better known as historical materialism , to analyze and critique the development of class society and especially of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic, social and political change. First developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the midth century, it has been the foremost ideology of the communist movement. Marxism does not lay out a blueprint of a communist society per se and it merely presents an analysis that concludes the means by which its implementation will be triggered, distinguishing its fundamental characteristics as based on the derivation of real-life conditions.
Marxism considers itself to be the embodiment of scientific socialism , but it does not model an ideal society based on the design of intellectuals , whereby communism is seen as a state of affairs to be established based on any intelligent design. Rather, it is a non- idealist attempt at the understanding of material history and society, whereby communism is the expression of a real movement, with parameters that are derived from actual life.
According to Marxist theory , class conflict arises in capitalist societies due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat —a class of wage laborers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie —the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit.
This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production , results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness.
In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism —a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use.
As the productive forces continued to advance, socialism would be transformed into a communist society , i.
While it originates from the works of Marx and Engels, Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts which has then led to contradictory conclusions.
Classical Marxism is the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Marx and Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially Leninism and Marxism—Leninism.
Orthodox Marxism aims to simplify, codify and systematize Marxist method and theory by clarifying the perceived ambiguities and contradictions of classical Marxism.
The philosophy of orthodox Marxism includes the understanding that material development advances in technology in the productive forces is the primary agent of change in the structure of society and of human social relations and that social systems and their relations e.
This revolutionary change is the vehicle for fundamental society-wide changes and ultimately leads to the emergence of new economic systems.
At the root of Marxism is historical materialism, the materialist conception of history which holds that the key characteristic of economic systems through history has been the mode of production and that the change between modes of production has been triggered by class struggle.
According to this analysis, the Industrial Revolution ushered the world into capitalism as a new mode of production. Before capitalism, certain working classes had ownership of instruments utilized in production. However, because machinery was much more efficient, this property became worthless and the mass majority of workers could only survive by selling their labor to make use of someone else's machinery, thus making someone else profit.
Accordingly, capitalism divided the world between two major classes, namely that of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. According to the materialist conception of history, it is through the furtherance of its own material interests that the rising bourgeoisie within feudalism captured power and abolished, of all relations of private property, only the feudal privilege, thereby taking the feudal ruling class out of existence.
This was another key element behind the consolidation of capitalism as the new mode of production, the final expression of class and property relations that has led to a massive expansion of production. It is only in capitalism that private property in itself can be abolished.
In between capitalism and communism, there is the dictatorship of the proletariat , a democratic state where the whole of the public authority is elected and recallable under the basis of universal suffrage.
Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression. The communist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution. According to Marxian crisis theory , communism is not an inevitability, but an economic necessity.
An important concept in Marxism is socialization versus nationalization. Nationalization is state ownership of property whereas socialization is control and management of property by society. Marxism considers the latter as its goal and considers nationalization a tactical issue, as state ownership is still in the realm of the capitalist mode of production.
In the words of Friedrich Engels , "the transformation [ We want to achieve a new and better order of society: in this new and better society there must be neither rich nor poor; all will have to work. Not a handful of rich people, but all the working people must enjoy the fruits of their common labour. Machines and other improvements must serve to ease the work of all and not to enable a few to grow rich at the expense of millions and tens of millions of people.
This new and better society is called socialist society. The teachings about this society are called 'socialism'. Leninism is the body of political theory , developed by and named after the Russian revolutionary and later- Soviet premier Vladimir Lenin , for the democratic organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leninism comprises socialist political and economic theories developed from orthodox Marxism as well as Lenin's interpretations of Marxist theory for practical application to the socio-political conditions of the agrarian , earlyth-century Russian Empire. Leninism was composed for revolutionary praxis and originally was neither a rigorously proper philosophy nor a discrete political theory.
As a political-science term, Leninism entered common usage in after infirmity ended Lenin's participation in governing the Russian Communist Party.
The Differences Between Communism and Socialism
Communism from Latin communis , 'common, universal'   is a philosophical , social , political , and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society , namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes , money   and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism , its economic system and mode of production , namely that in this system there are two major social classes, conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society and this situation can only ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the proletariat the working class , who make up the majority of the population within society and must work to survive; and the bourgeoisie the capitalist class , a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Along with social democracy , communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the s. Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme. Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine.
Skip to content. All Homes Search Contact. The terms capitalism and socialism are both used to describe economic and political systems. Capitalism vs. Socialism The economic system called capitalism developed gradually over centuries, beginning in the late Middle Ages. The World Bank was the principal source of statistical data, which pertained to countries and approximately 97 percent of the world's p … Decisions over the use of resources are made by the individual or individuals who own the company. Communism This study compared capitalist and socialist countries in measures of the physical quality of life PQL , taking into account the level of economic development.
The socialist mode of production , also referred to as the communist mode of production , the lower-stage of communism  or simply socialism as Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels used the terms communism and socialism interchangeably,   is a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that emerge from capitalism in the schema of historical materialism within Marxist theory. The Marxist definition of socialism is that of an economic transition. In this transition, the sole criterion for production is use-value i. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning. Distribution of products is based on the principle of " to each according to his contribution ". The social relations of socialism are characterized by the proletariat effectively controlling the means of production , either through cooperative enterprises or by public ownership or private artisanal tools and self-management. Surplus value goes to the working class and hence society as a whole.
Marx’s Concept of Socialism
One of the most important theoretical challenges facing us is developing a viable alternative to capitalism. Achieving this requires rethinking basic premises of social theory and practice, given the difficulties of freeing humanity from such problems as alienation, class domination, and the capitalist law of value. Keywords: socialism , value production , abstract labor , Communism , state.