Concept And Definition Of Development PdfBy Tmakachstorbie In and pdf 21.04.2021 at 12:05 5 min read
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Human development is about the real freedom ordinary people have to decide who to be, what to do, and how to live. The human development concept was developed by economist Mahbub ul Haq.
Development is a process that creates growth, progress, positive change or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components. The purpose of development is a rise in the level and quality of life of the population, and the creation or expansion of local regional income and employment opportunities, without damaging the resources of the environment.
About Human Development
Human development is about the real freedom ordinary people have to decide who to be, what to do, and how to live. The human development concept was developed by economist Mahbub ul Haq. At the World Bank in the s, and later as minister of finance in his own country, Pakistan, Dr. In particular, he believed that the commonly used measure of Gross Domestic Product failed to adequately measure well-being.
Central to the human development approach is the concept of capabilities. Capabilities—what people can do and what they can become-are the equipment one has to pursue a life of value. Basic capabilities valued by virtually everyone include: good health, access to knowledge, and a decent material standard of living. Our capabilities are expanded or constrained by our own efforts and by the institutions and conditions of our society. Those poor in capabilities are less able to chart their own course and to seize opportunities.
Without basic capabilities, human potential remains unfulfilled. The state of the nation is often expressed through GDP Gross Domestic Product , daily stock market results, consumer spending levels, and national debt figures. But these numbers provide only a partial view of how people are faring. The Human Development Index was developed as an alternative to simple money metrics.
It is an easy-to-understand numerical measure made up of what most people believe are the very basic ingredients of human well-being: health, education, and income. The first Human Development Index was presented in It has been an annual feature of every Human Development Report since, ranking virtually every country in the world from number one currently Iceland to number currently Sierra Leone.
This composite index has become one of the most widely used indices of well-being around the world and has succeeded in broadening the measurement and discussion of well-being beyond the important, but nevertheless narrow, confines of income. In a number of countries, the Human Development Index is now an official government statistic; its annual publication inaugurates serious political discussion and renewed efforts, nationally and regionally, to improve lives.
While data are plentiful on the extremes of affluence and deprivation in the United States, the American Human Development Index provides a single measure of well-being for all Americans, disaggregated by state and congressional district, as well as by gender, race, and ethnicity.
All data used in the index come from official U. The data included in the American Human Development Index will help us understand variations among regions and groups. It is a snapshot of America today. Moreover, the index will serve as a baseline for monitoring future progress.
Most people would agree that a long and healthy life, access to knowledge, and a decent material standard of living are the basic building blocks of well-being and opportunity. Human Development Index upon which it is modeled. These three core capabilities are universally valued around the world, and measurable, intuitively sensible, and reliable indicators exist to represent them—two critical considerations in the construction of a composite index.
The most valuable capability people possess is to be alive. Advancing human development requires, first and foremost, expanding the real opportunities people have to avoid premature death by disease or injury, to enjoy protection from arbitrary denial of life, to live in a healthy environment, to maintain a healthy lifestyle, to receive quality medical care, and to attain the highest possible standard of physical and mental health. In the American HD Index, life expectancy at birth stands as a proxy for the capability to live a long and healthy life.
Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a baby born today is expected to live if current mortality patterns continue throughout his or her lifetime. The most commonly used gauge of population health the world over, life expectancy at birth represents one-third of the overall American HD Index.
Access to knowledge is a critical determinant of long-term well-being and is essential to individual freedom, self-determination, and self-sufficiency. Education builds confidence, confers status and dignity, and broadens the horizons of the possible—as well as allowing for the acquisition of skills and credentials.
Globalization and technological change have made it extraordinarily difficult for poorly educated Americans to achieve the economic self-sufficiency, peace of mind, and self-respect enabled by a secure livelihood. Access to knowledge is measured using two indicators: school enrollment for the population age 3 and older, and educational degree attainment for the population 25 years and older.
A one-third weight is applied to the enrollment indicator and a two-thirds weight is applied to the degree attainment indicator. Both indicators are from the American Community Survey, U. Census Bureau. Income is essential to meeting basic needs like food and shelter—and to moving beyond these necessities to a life of genuine choice and freedom.
Income enables valuable options and alternatives, and its absence can limit life chances and restrict access to many opportunities. A decent standard of living is measured using median personal earnings of all full- and part-time workers 16 years and older from the American Community Survey, U. How are you doing in the American HD Index rankings? Find out by calculating your personal American HD Index score! Newsletter Signup Search the Site. Who Graduates? NYC OurHome. The capability approach is a normative framework used for analyzing well-being, often employed to understand development problems.
Although certain aspects of the approach can be linked to Aristotle and Adam Smith, it is philosopher-economist Amartya Sen and more recently, University of Chicago professor of law and ethics Martha Nussbaum, who are responsible for its development and proliferation.
One illustration of the difference between capabilities to function and formal freedoms is found in the area of educational opportunity. All US citizens have the formal freedom to earn a college degree.
Formal freedoms, in this and many cases, are necessary but not sufficient to provide true capabilities to function.
Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities. Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place.
In the s and s, development was largely referred to as economic growth, which meant a quantitative rather than qualitative change in economic performance. Consequently, development theories were designed to activate and accelerate the process of economic growth and move developing nations along the path charted by the industrial ones of the West, from relying primarily on agricultural activity to relying primarily on industrial production and trade. No plan or amount of money can develop an economy if it leaves out culture, which governs the attitudes and the ways of thinking of the people who would be managing the proposed development strategies and programs. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
In digital society, knowledge is well distributed virtually and online. A substantial fraction of knowledge landscapes is also located in the digital environment. Both health and knowledge need to be understood today as a part of the digital society. It is important to estimate the impact that digital society has on knowledge landscapes and on health. Hence, this article deals with the concepts of health in relation to the present digital environment. How knowledge relevant to health and well-being is distributed in the digital society, and how the search for this knowledge, ie, navigating knowledge landscapes, influences everyday life and health needs to be clarified.
A multitude of meanings is attached to the idea of development; the term is complex. It is a bout building active and sustainable communities based on social justice and mutual respect. It is about changing power structures to reduce barriers that prevent people from participating in the issues that affect their lives.
Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development , economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels. Development economics involves the creation of theories and methods that aid in the determination of policies and practices and can be implemented at either the domestic or international level. Unlike in many other fields of economics, approaches in development economics may incorporate social and political factors to devise particular plans.
By Saul McLeod , updated
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Dudley Seers while elaborating on the meaning of development suggests that while there can be value judgements on what is development and what is not, it should be a universally acceptable aim of development to make for conditions that lead to a realisation of the potentials of human personality. A job not necessarily paid employment but including studying, working on a family farm or keeping house;. The people are held to be the principal actors in human scale development. Respecting the diversity of the people as well as the autonomy of the spaces in which they must act converts the present day object person to a subject person in the human scale development. Development of the variety that we have experienced has largely been a top-down approach where there is little possibility of popular participation and decision making. In this sense development seeks to restore or enhance basic human capabilities and freedoms and enables people to be the agents of their own development. In the process of capitalistic development and leading national economy towards integration into foreign markets, even politically democratic states are apt to effectively exclude the vast masses from political and economic decision-making.
Лиланд Фонтейн, - представился он, протягивая руку. - Я рад, что вы живы-здоровы. Сьюзан не отрывала глаз от директора. Она была уверена, что рано или поздно познакомится с этим человеком, но никогда не думала, что это случится при таких обстоятельствах. - Идемте, мисс Флетчер, - сказал Фонтейн и прошел. - Нам сейчас пригодится любая помощь.
meaning, and generate a discourse on what constitutes this „good change‟. As a result, the term development in both academic and non-academic fields has.
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Стратмор требовал запретить всяческий доступ, но Фонтейн настоял на. - В шифровалке нет камер слежения? - удивился Бринкерхофф. - А что, - спросила она, не отрываясь от монитора, - нам с Кармен нужно укромное местечко. Бринкерхофф выдавил из себя нечто невразумительное. Мидж нажала несколько клавиш. - Я просматриваю регистратор лифта Стратмора.
Слыханное ли это. Отправляйся домой, уже поздно. Она окинула его высокомерным взглядом и швырнула отчет на стол. - Я верю этим данным. Чутье подсказывает мне, что здесь все верно. Бринкерхофф нахмурился. Даже директор не ставил под сомнение чутье Мидж Милкен - у нее была странная особенность всегда оказываться правой.
ГЛАВА 92 Сьюзан начала спускаться по лестнице в подсобное помещение. Густые клубы пара окутывали корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА, ступеньки лестницы были влажными от конденсации, она едва не упала, поскользнувшись.