Academic And Scholar Search Engines And Sources PdfBy Sam M. In and pdf 21.04.2021 at 12:59 3 min read
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- Scholarly Resources
- Academic and Scholar Search Engines and Sources 2017
- The top list of academic search engines
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Please contact mpub-help umich. For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. In a previous paper we provided guidelines for scholars on optimizing research articles for academic search engines such as Google Scholar. Feedback in the academic community to these guidelines was diverse. To find out whether these concerns are justified, we conducted several tests on Google Scholar. The results show that academic search engine spam is indeed—and with little effort—possible: We increased rankings of academic articles on Google Scholar by manipulating their citation counts; Google Scholar indexed invisible text we added to some articles, making papers appear for keyword searches the articles were not relevant for; Google Scholar indexed some nonsensical articles we randomly created with the paper generator SciGen; and Google Scholar linked to manipulated versions of research papers that contained a Viagra advertisement.
At the end of this paper, we discuss whether academic search engine spam could become a serious threat to Web-based academic search engines. Keywords: academic search engine spam, search engines, academic search engines, citation spam, spamdexing, Google Scholar.
Indexing academic PDFs from the Web not only allows easy and free access to academic articles and publisher-independent search, it also changes the way academics can make their articles available to the academic community.
With classic digital libraries, researchers have no influence on getting their articles indexed. They either have published in a publication indexed by a digital library, and then their article is available in that digital library, or they have not, and then the article is not available in that digital library. In contrast, researchers can influence whether their articles are indexed by Web-based academic search engines: they simply have to put their articles on a website to get them indexed.
In addition, authors should not only be concerned about the fact that their articles are indexed, but also where they are ranked in the result list. As with all search results, those that are listed first, the top-ranked articles, are more likely to be read and cited.
Furthermore, citation counts obtained from Google Scholar are sometimes used to evaluate the impact of articles and their authors. Accordingly, scientists want all articles that cite their articles to be included in Google Scholar and they want to ensure that citations are identified correctly.
In addition, researchers and institutions using citation data from Google Scholar should know how robust and complete the data is that they use for their analyses. The idea of academic search engine optimization is controversial in the academic community. Some researchers agree that scholars should be concerned about it, and respond positively in various blogs and discussion groups:. After reading this publication [ It is about helping academic search engines to understand the content of research papers, and thus how to make this content more available.
Therefore, we researched whether academic search engine spam can be performed, how it might be done, and how effective it is. Or, in short, the abuse of academic search engine optimization techniques. Initial results were published in a poster Beel and Gipp The final results of our research are presented in this paper. The main objective of this study was to analyze the resilience of Google Scholar against spam and to find out whether the following is possible:.
In addition, we present our first ideas on how to detect and prevent academic search engine spam. The results will help to answer the following questions in further studies:. To our knowledge, no studies are available on the existence of spam in academic search engines or on how academic search engine spam could be recognized and prevented.
However, indexing and ranking methods of Web-based academic search engines such as Google Scholar are similar to those of classic Web search engines such as Google Web Search. Therefore, a look at related work in the field of classic Web spam may help in understanding academic search engine spam.
Most Web search engines rank Web pages based on two factors, namely the Web page content and the amount and quality of links that point to the Web page.
Accordingly, Web spammers try to manipulate one or both of these factors to improve the ranking of their websites for a specific set of keywords. Link spammers have various options for creating fraudulent links.
They can create dummy Web sites that link to the website they want to push link farms , exchange links with other webmasters, buy links on third party Web pages, and post links to their websites in blogs or other resources.
Content spammers try to make their websites appear more relevant for certain keyword searches than they actually are. A third type of Web spam is duplicate spam. Here, spammers try to get duplicates of their websites indexed and highly ranked. Figure 1 shows an example in which the three first results for a search query point eventually to the same document.
The chance that a Web surfer would read the document is higher than if only one of the top results had pointed to this paper . Google provides guidelines for webmasters on how to avoid unintentional dupicate content spam . Similar guidelines do not exist for Google Scholar. Figure 1: Example of duplicates on Google's result list search query: 'tagging academic papers'. Although Web spammers are continuously adjusting their methods and developing new techniques e. Researchers could be tempted to do academic search engine spam for several reasons: reputation, visibility, and ill will.
We discuss these reasons below. One reason researchers might perform academic search engine spam may be to increase citation counts of their articles and hence enhance their reputations.
Citation counts are commonly used to evaluate the impact and performance of researchers and their articles. Direct manipulation of Web of Science would be difficult, as ISI checks citations in 10, journals from the reference lists in those journals from to the present and throws out duplicate references in a single article.
Nevertheless, some researchers are said to manipulate their citation counts with citation circles, inappropriate self-citations, etc. Nowadays, citation counts from Web-based academic search engines are also used for impact evaluations. These impact measures may be used to support hiring and grants decisions. We do not know to what extent these tools are used to evaluate the performance of scientists.
Some evaluations even take into consideration download counts or the number of readers Patterson , Taraborelli We believe that this kind of data will play an important role in impact evaluations in the future. And the more these tools are used, the higher the temptation for researchers to manipulate citation counts.
To increase their reputations and publication lists, researchers might also try to create fake papers and get Google Scholar to index these papers. Researchers are not the only ones who are evaluated by citation counts; organizations such as universities or journals are evaluated the same way and might therefore consider performing academic search engine spam to increase their citation counts.
Researchers could duplicate one of their own articles with enough slight changes and publish it on the Web to make the article appear new to Google Scholar. If Google Scholar indexed it, the duplicate would appear on Google Scholar as separate search result. The downside of this approach would be that real citations would be divided among the various duplicates of the article.
Most academic search engines offer features such as showing articles cited by an article, or showing related articles to a given article. Citation spam could bring more articles from manipulating researchers onto more of these lists. To do so, an author could modify an already published article by inserting many additional references to papers related to the modified paper. Authors of the cited papers would pay attention to the modified article when they examine who is citing them, and readers of the cited articles would more likely pay attention to the citing article when they are searching for related work.
On first glance, this idea might seem absurd. These teams try to keep negative remarks and negative publicity about a company from showing up high on search-engine results. As a consequence, only positive websites appear high in the result list.
Over the past year, we performed several experiments on Google Scholar. We placed invisible text in an article we published, modified existing articles, and created several fake articles to test the resilience of Google Scholar.
The articles were uploaded to various websites so Google Scholar could index them. This paper should not be seen as a thorough experiment on how exactly Google Scholar may be spammed. It is rather a case study and proof-of-concept in which we perform various tests of how to spam Google Scholar. Google Scholar did not index our PDF files from mendeley. PDFs from sciplore. While writing one of our real papers Beel and Gipp b , and before it was published, we added words in white color to the first page see Figure 2.
In addition, we added several words in a layer behind the original text see Figure 3. Finally, a vector graphic, a type of picture that can be searched and is machine readable, was inserted. This vector graphic was also placed behind the original text, and contained white text in a tiny font size see Figure 4. We did not let IEEE know what we were doing, and the invisible text was not discovered.
About two months after publication the paper was crawled and indexed by Google Scholar, which included the invisible text. That means users of Google Scholar may find our article when they search for keywords that appear only in the invisible text. Figure 2: White text on white background highlighted for illustration Figure 3: Text in a hidden layer behind the original text highlighted for illustration Figure 4: The tiny white text right of the 'Vector graphic xxx:' is a vector grpahic highlighed for illustration.
We modified some articles we had already published and added additional keywords both visible and invisible throughout the document.
Google indexed all modified PDFs and grouped them with the original ones. That means users of Google Scholar may find these modified articles when they search for the additional keywords. In other words, researchers can make their articles appear for keyword searches the original article would not be considered relevant for. New keywords were also added to the PDF metadata title and keyword field. However, Google Scholar did not index the additional metadata.
In several existing articles we added new references to the bibliography. Some pointed to articles that were more recent than the original article. These modified articles were uploaded to the Web, and Google Scholar indexed all additional references.
As a consequence, citation counts and rankings of the cited articles increased. That means researchers could easily increase citation counts and rankings of their articles by modifying existing article and not necessarily their own. This way a researcher could also increase visibility of his articles. He could modify one of his own articles, add references to the bibliography, and the newly cited authors would then probably pay attention to the article.
We modified one article Beel and Gipp b and placed Viagra advertisement in it, including a clickable link to the corresponding website see Figure 5.
Academic and Scholar Search Engines and Sources 2017
This guide is a selected, focused and comprehensive annotated bibliography of academic and scholar search engines and sources. With the constant addition of new and pertinent information continuously coming online while other sights steadily disappear, it is very easy to experience both information overload and lack of high value resources for complex research. The true key is to be able to find the important academic and scholarly information both in the visible and invisible world wide web. The following selected academic and scholar search engines and sources offer researchers a broad range of subject matter and sector specific information retrieval and extraction resources to help you accomplish your research goals. Academics use Academia. The publications are stored in pdf which requires Acrobat Reader to open and print them. As more and more high quality educational content becomes available online for free, we ask ourselves, what are the real barriers to achieving a world class education?
Permissions : This work is protected by copyright and may be linked to without seeking permission. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Please contact mpub-help umich. For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. In a previous paper we provided guidelines for scholars on optimizing research articles for academic search engines such as Google Scholar.
The top list of academic search engines
Find scholarly content on the web with Google Scholar. It's useful for conducting comprehensive literature reviews beyond Walden Library. If Walden doesn't have an article you want, check Google Scholar. You may find a free copy online.
Frequently referred to as the invisible or deep web -- as opposed to the free web -- Healey Library's subscription databases provide well organized and highly selective coverage of scholarly journals. Others have a mix of scholarly journals, popular magazines, newspapers and other material. In these databases, you can limit your search to scholarly peer-reviewed journals. To find scholarly articles in UMBrella :.
Academic search engines have become the number one resource to turn to in order to find research papers and other scholarly sources. While classic academic databases like Web of Science and Scopus are locked behind pay walls, Google Scholar and others can be accessed free of charge. In order to help you get your research done fast, we have compiled the top list of academic search engines. Google Scholar is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It's the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents.
Some of these scholarly results include free full text and many more are available for free to COM students, faculty and staff. You can create a search alert with Google Scholar to get automatic updates on your research topic. Here's how:.
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