Karl Marx Selected Writings In Sociology And Social Philosophy PdfBy Laurencio O. In and pdf 17.04.2021 at 17:33 6 min read
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- Winter 2021
- Karl Marx Selected Writings in Sociology & Social Philosophy
- Thomas Bottomore
- Karl Marx: Selected Writings
Karl Marx — and his sometime collaborator and long-term friend, Friedrich Engels — , are rightly regarded as the founders of a highly significant tradition in the history of political philosophy.
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He is an expert in Karl Marx"s sociology and has produced works like Spread across five chapters, this book introduces the readers to the Marxism and its social philosophy. The introductory part has the purpose of placing the reader in context with the communist ideals; not by introducing Marx"s life but by introducing the social philosophy of Marxism.
The first part of the introduction deals with the Marxian sociology and its philosophy i. In the first section the editors comment how Marx as a young man was influenced by the Hegelian philosophy of dialectics. Marx was almost taken up by Hegelian philosophy that, as the author comments, " He was so much influenced by the Hegelian idea of alienation that it later became a part of his philosophy in a much extensive way than that of Hegel. Alienation, for Marx meant the loss of human nature be it through whatever mode; say religion, property etc.
Thus he finally breaks away from the so called Hegelian spiritual dialectics and employs his own unique empirical methods to establish the historical materialism and consequently the materialistic dialectics. In doing so he broke away with what was till then considered the prime factors viz. Thus rejecting the old social philosophy he brought in a new social philosophy where man alone is his master and the sole history maker; it had been him, who out of his selfish nature restructured the primitive communist society of harmony into a disharmonious society of class divisions arising from private property.
Marx attempted through his writings to identify the future course of history and to provide a guideline towards the ideal society which will arise out of historical necessity. The second part of the introduction shows how in the primary stages Marxism remained as theory of less interest among sociologists and later turned out to be a topic of hot discussion especially at the initial stages of twentieth century and by with the Russian revolution brought one third of the globe under its enchanting influence.
Chapter one titled "Methodological Foundations" is a philosophical approach to the Marxian social theory. It focuses on three aspects of Marxian theory. The first one is the materialistic conception of history. Karl Marx thinks that the society as it is today is the outcome of historical conditions especially of economic ones. He is convinced that, "the anatomy of the civil society is to be sought in political economy" p. The history analysed in its empirical notions points to the fact that it is on economy-the foundation-that the superstructures like state, religion and politics are erected.
Out of the economic relations of history arouse class system corresponding to the stages of history. The society which was primitively communist first turned into master-slave system, then feudal-serf system and at present bourgeoisie-proletariat system. There had always been a class of the oppressed and another of the oppressing; the historical culmination of which lies in proletariat.
The proletariat with their unstained consciousness owing to their labour-the activity that signifies a man-will rise in revolution to throw out the bourgeoisie out of power and consequently a state of proletariat dictatorship will take place which will stimulate a confiscation of private property. The culmination of the same is the withering away of the state and a consequent communist society which requires no state governance but constituted by enlightened people who live in commune. The second part of chapter two titled "Existence and Consciousness" tries to reason out the driving principles of human existence.
The world had been in a state of harmony in the initial stages by virtue of its very nature. Later, this cosmic harmony had been put at stake by the only conscious being viz. Thus the society turned out to be a disharmonious one of class and class-based social relations. The final part of the first chapter deals with the social relations and economic structure of a class society.
In a class society the labour which is actually a process in which the nature and man cooperate in the first place is made a commodity and thus the social relations of such a society is not genuine but superficial.
The one who owns property buys the labour of a common man and thereby reduces it to a commodity. Thus economy is identified as the root reason behind social relations. Chapter two, titled "Pre-Capitalist Societies" is an attempt to trace the history of the societies hitherto, strictly under material circumstances. Part one of this chapter tries to analyse the modes of property and production so as to analyse the corresponding economic relations. The Chapter three titled, "Sociology of Capitalism" is a six level criticism of the capitalistic system.
The first level tries to analyse the grounds of the origin of Capitalism. Capitalism originated from the serfs of the middle ages. The industrial revolution followed by discovery of new markets brought a situation where the monopoly of the lord in manufacture ceased.
The serfs with the newly born opportunities brought down the lords and emerged as the powerful class-the bourgeoisie. Thus, "The bourgeoisie has through its exploitation of the world market given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country. The next level of this chapter tries to analyse the social system of capitalism which is guided by economic relations and identifies the general trend of the same as purchasing human labour as if it is a commodity.
As social creatures man is no more in a harmonic relation to his fellow being but in a commodity-relationship with the other. The next level of the chapter evaluates the ideology of capitalism. The driving force and ideology of capitalism is one of utility and exploitation according to Marx. For this, the capitalists introduce the iron fist of state and law to suppress the labourers. The next level deals with how alienation arises from capitalism. Alienation is any process that denies a human being his true possibilities and leads to a false identification of himself with some other thing than himself.
Alienation, often expressed in religious terms, has economic origins. The product of human labour implies the essence of human nature.
The capitalist by taking away this product of the labour alienates man from his true self and restraints him from self realisation and man often attributes, for consolation, his essence to some other thing outside him like God in religion; making religion the opium of the oppressed. The next section of the chapter deals with class struggle and its importance in the society. Class struggle originates from the fact that the world has reached the most decisive stage of material dialectics i.
Such a fight will primarily originate in the form of struggle between individual bourgeois and individual proletariat but later the proletariats identifying it as a problem of the whole class, will take it up in mass scale leading to revolution and the fall of the capitalist state.
The final section of the chapter is a questionnaire circulated by Marx in "s to investigate on the conditions under which the proletariat lived. The fourth chapter titled "Sociology of Politics" has two sections. The first section deals with state and law. This section is an analysis of the present setup of state and laws of the capitalist society. State is always a class-state because it always stands for the interest of a particular class.
In his own words, " Thus the existing state is a capitalist one and its paradigms are bourgeoisie ones. Hence there will arise another state out of the proletariat revolution which manifests the desire of the proletariats to dominate over the bourgeoisie. The dynamics of such a revolution are dealt in the next section. This section presents proletariat and wealth as antinomies which will be synthesised by a violent revolution.
As Marx states, "Revolution in general-the overthrow of the existing ruling power and the dissolution of existing social relationships-is a political act. It will be marked by abolition of property and a gradual withering of class divisions.
However, such a state won"t be the ideal one as it is will be have the birthmarks of the class society from which it originates. The final stage of this process results in a communist society free from classes and politics. The features of the future society are dealt in the next chapter. The final chapter titled "Future Society" comments on the nature of the communist society.
Such a society will be devoid of classes and hence marked by no politics as there are no class interests to be protected. The marking feature of such a society is the upholding of the common interest and just allocation of resource marked by a commune of property and no private ownership.
Whatever alienates man from his true essence will have no place in a communist society like labour division, private property and even religion. Both physical and individual labour will have equal status and individuals have the opportunity to realise their true potentials by engaging in any sort of work they want but the line of justice guiding such a situation will the retributive principle of reward corresponding to labour. The book comes along with two prefaces each of the first and second editions respectively and also a Translator"s preface in which the editors make some general comments regarding their intentions behind composing such a work viz.
They also list a few abbreviations of primary sources that are quoted. The book comes along with a selected bibliography so that curious readers can make further studies on Marxian philosophy. Finally, the book has an index too that contains some key words and their respective page numbers to make quick reading on selected topics of interest.
Thanks to Pelican publishers, the book meets the standards regarding printing and quality. The book comes in a limp edition with quality pages and in a comfortable and handy size; even the cover page has deserves a special appreciation as it is quite attractive.
However, the line spacing seems little less and at times feels clumsy. The price is affordable and worth the content. As a final word, Karl Marx: Selected Works in Sociology and Social Philosophy is an effective guide to novices in Marxian philosophy and also a helping hand to scholars who want an integral idea of Marxian social philosophy under a single umbrella. However the work would have been more effective if it included a critical analysis of the Marxian theory too.
Maxmilien Rubel is an author exclusively known for his writings on Marxism. With the passage of time there originated private property in the form of slavery in the initial stages corresponding to masterslave relationship and later as land corresponding to lord-serf relationship. The final stage of this development was bourgeoisie-proletariat relationship.
The second part of the chapter identifies the features of a capitalist state. The capitalist state is marked by the presence of two classes that are strictly in opposition viz. The former being the possessors of economic power dominate the latter and oppress them.
Karl Marx Selected Writings in Sociology & Social Philosophy
Progress Publishers Selected Works. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts selections. Karl Marx — was a philosopher, social scientist, historian, and revolutionary. Reviewed in the United Kingdom on 29 April This second edition of McLellan's comprehensive selection of Marx's writings includes carefully selected extracts from the whole range of Marx's political, philosophical, and economic thought. Mjr Corbett. Marx, London, , pp.
The Philosophy of Revolution David P. Gauthier bio David P. Theses on Feuerbach , trans. Bottomore and Maximilien Rubel London, ,
Click HERE for more information. But in conditions of "Total War" millions of women - in the Services and on the Home Front - demonstrated that they were cleverer, more broad-minded and altogether more complex than anyone had ever guessed. To avoid overloading the text with footnotes I have added an annotated name index as well as a full subject index.
Bottomore, was a British Marxist sociologist. Bottomore was Secretary of the International Sociological Association from to He was the eighth president of ISA
Karl Marx: Selected Writings
Внезапно камера отъехала в сторону, под деревья. В кадре возник мужчина в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, в руке он держал большой портфель. Выйдя на открытое место и бросив взгляд на корчащегося на земле Танкадо, он задвигал пальцами, словно исполнял ими какой-то причудливый танец над коробочкой, которую держал в руке. - Он работает на Монокле, - пояснил Смит. - Посылает сообщение о том, что Танкадо ликвидирован. Сьюзан повернулась к Беккеру и усмехнулась: - Похоже, у этого Халохота дурная привычка сообщать об убийстве, когда жертва еще дышит.
Как он поведет машину, если они все же доберутся до. И тут в его памяти зазвучал голос одного из преподавателей Корпуса морской пехоты, подсказавший ему, что делать. Применив силу, говорил этот голос, ты столкнешься с сопротивлением. Но заставь противника думать так, как выгодно тебе, и у тебя вместо врага появится союзник.
Reviews: Karl Marx: Selected Writings in Sociology and Social Philosophy, Article Information, PDF download for Reviews: Karl Marx: Selected Writings in.
Но это не все, сэр. Я запустил антивирус, и он показывает нечто очень странное. - Неужели? - Стратмор по-прежнему оставался невозмутим. - Что показалось тебе странным.
Я должен добраться до ангара. Интересно, увидит ли пилот лирджета, что он подъезжает. Есть ли у него оружие. Откроет ли он вовремя дверцу кабины.