What Is Sales And Marketing PdfBy Tobias F. In and pdf 22.04.2021 at 21:40 5 min read
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- Sales and marketing integration: a proposed framework
- 25+ SAMPLE Sales and Marketing Plan Templates in PDF | MS Word | Excel
- Co‐ordinating sales and marketing in consumer goods firms
- Partner Managed Cloud Provider sales and marketing PDF
Sales and marketing integration: a proposed framework
In response to increased competitive pressures, shortening product life cycles, and heightened customer demands, businesses are increasing their ability to effectively adapt and build competitive advantage by going horizontal-by flattening their organizations, breaking down barriers between functions, and stimulating more teamwork between functional areas.
In a marketing context, this organizational trend is reflected in the growing interest in integrated marketing communications IMC. IMC emphasizes the value of coordinating marketing communications activities-advertising, direct response, Web sites, sales promotion, and publicity.
However, these IMC coordination efforts within marketing largely ignore the most significant marketing tool for communicating and influencing relationships with customers-the company's sales force. Clearly, coordinating the sales and marketing functions can improve the effectiveness of activities undertaken by the functional areas. The Venn diagram in Figure 1 illustrates the need for interaction between sales and marketing.
The activities in the circle on the left are primarily undertaken by the marketing function with input from sales, and the activities in the circle on the right are primarily undertaken by the sales function with input from marketing.
The activities in the intersection of the two circles can be performed effectively only through a coordinated effort between sales and marketing. Thus, all of the activities shown in Figure 1 require some level of interaction between sales and marketing. Managers recognize this need for greater coordination between marketing and sales. Marketing research has examined the relationship between marketing and other functional areas e. However, research on the sales-marketing interface is limited.
Marketing and sales integration is one of the components of market-driven organizations. Narver and Slater and Slater and Narver have conceptualized market orientation as consisting of three components-customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination.
Kohli, Ronald E. Michaels, Barton A. Weitz, and Andris A. ZoltnersIn this paper, we identify sales and marketing activities and common impediments to their integration. We then discuss the concept of sales-marketing integration and distinguish it from related concepts such as involvement and communication. Following this, we discuss approaches businesses can use to improve sales-marketing integration as well as their potential costs and drawbacks.
The paper concludes with a set of propositions identifying the conditions under which sales-marketing integration has the greatest impact on firm performance. The objectives of this paper are to identify the impediments to an effective sales-marketing integration, the approaches that firms can use to overcome these obstacles, and then to propose a framework outlining the conditions under which an effective sales-marketing integration has its greatest impact on the performance of firms.
For example, in their empirical study of consumer grocery product firms, Strahle, Spiro, and Acito found discrepancies between sales and marketing managers with regard to specific product strategies.
The activities for generating sales volume undertaken by sales managers were inconsistent with the hold, harvest, or divest product strategy specified by marketing managers. Thus, salespeople were promoting products that marketing did not plan to support in the long run and failing to adequately promote products that marketing was supporting.
Needless to say, such a lack of congruence can seriously damage the relationships that companies have with their customers. A major impediment to coordinating activities across functional areas is that employees in the functions have different mind-sets-different perspectives on issues and approaches for addressing problems Ancona and Caldwell They promote the use of a wide range of products and services offered by their company to these customers.
On the other hand, marketing people brand and product managers are typically responsible for a specific product or brand and focus on that product to the exclusion of other products or brands offered by the firm. This difference in focus is reinforced by the incentives typically used by firms.
The incentives for the sales force are normally related to sales of all products made to customers in a territory, whereas the reward and recognition for product managers are based on sales and profitability of the specific products for which they are responsible.
They develop strategies for selling to customers at an individual level Weitz Marketing people tend to deal with aggregations of customers and market segments and develop a more abstract understanding of these customers through analyzing market research data. Rather than having a daily routine, the work of marketers is more project oriented-planning the introduction of a new product, developing a new advertising campaign, and preparing and executing the annual marketing plan.
Moreover, salespeople directly feel the pressure from quarterly revenue projections provided by corporate management to Wall Street. Marketers are more removed from these types of high-pressure environments. They either make the sale or they do not. Their performance is readily measurable. On the other hand, assessing the effectiveness of marketing activities is more ambiguous. It is often difficult to assess the effectiveness of marketing strategies, advertising campaigns, and promotional programs.
The effects of some marketing activities, such as changing a brand's image, develop over a long period of time. These marketing efforts are often assessed by examining the process for making decisions and intermediate outcome such as brand awareness and brand attitudes. Salespeople focus on month-to-month and quarter-to-quarter sales, whereas marketing managers concentrate on building long-term competitive advantage that might take years to realize.
These differences in perspective are presented in Figure 2. Due to these differences, it is difficult for people in sales and marketing to understand and appreciate the issues raised by their counterparts, and these differences impede effective coordination between the functional areas.
Kahn and his colleagues Kahn Kahn , Kahn and Mentzer review the literature on interdepartmental integration and identify different approaches for assessing the construct. Some researchers e. Other research adopts a multidimensional perspective. For example, Ruekert and Walker describe marketing's interactions with other functional units in terms of exchanges of resources, work, and technical assistance and the amount and difficulty of communication; Song, Xie, and Dyer define integration as involvement, information quality, and harmony.
We argue that it is important to distinguish the integration construct from related constructs such as interactions, communications, and involvement. For example, although increasing communications is likely to result in greater salesmarketing integration, it is unlikely to do so if the interactions are acrimonious.
Further, indiscriminately increasing communications may lead to information overload that may reduce rather than increase coordination and collaboration. We argue that sales-marketing integration is a dynamic process in which the two functional areas create more value for their firms by working together than they would create by working in isolation.
We define sales-marketing integration as the extent to which activities carried out by the two functions see Figure 1 are supportive of each other. Note that in order for a function's activities to be supportive of the other function's activities, the two must be consistent and congruent with each other e.
Thus, for example, the timing of a salesperson's visit to a customer to introduce a new product must be coordinated with marketing's launch of the ad campaign for the product.
Both activities are consistent in that they have the same goal, and they support each other in that each activity makes the other activity more effective. In addition, we argue that developing greater sales-marketing integration is more important for business performance in some situations and not as important in other situations. StructureSome structural approaches for improving sales-marketing integration are 1 decentralization, 2 , cross-functional teams, and 3 integrators.
DecentralizationCentralization refers to the extent to which decision-making authority in an organization is located at higher levels of the organization Aiken and Hage Although advantageous in some ways, centralization of decision making leads to negative effects as well.
For example, Menon, Jaworski, and Kohli find that centralization reduces connectedness and increases conflict across functions. In essence, a centralized organizational structure tends to create a climate of tension, whereas a decentralized system is likely to induce cross-functional communication or resource exchange. By one estimate, sales and marketing organizations in 54 percent of firms represent independent silos, each reporting to its own head and "meeting" or being coordinated at the top at the CEO or COO level see also Workman, Homburg, and Gruner One way of lowering the level at which such coordination takes place i.
In such a structure, the vice president of sales and marketing has the potential to improve integration between the sales and marketing functions through his or her hierarchical authority. Thus, P1: Decentralization of the sales and marketing functions has a positive effect on the degree of sales-marketing integration. Cross-Functional TeamsAnother structural approach for improving the sales-marketing interface is to form cross-functional teams composed of people in the two functional areas.
These teams are tasked with addressing specific issues and performing one or more of the activities noted in Figure 1. By working together on these teams, members develop a better appreciation and understanding of the issues and perspectives facing the marketing and sales functions. In addition, by making decisions jointly as a team, the members feel a sense of ownership in the decisions and tend to champion the decisions when they interact with others in their functional area.
However, there are costs associated with the use of crossfunctional teams. The different perspectives of the team members create potential for conflict. Ancona and Caldwell If this conflict is not managed constructively, the use of cross-functional teams can actually have a negative effect on sales-marketing integration.
In addition, great care should be used when composing the teams to include people who are motivated to improve sales-marketing integration Randel and Jaussi Thus, we propose:P2: The use of cross-functional teams has a positive relationship with sales-marketing integration, provided team members are trained to manage conflict and are committed to improving sales-marketing integration.
IntegratorsThe third structural approach for improving sales-marketing integration is to assign employees to a special integrator role. For example, market managers might be made responsible for coordinating marketing and sales activities such as advertising, pricing, and service support directed toward customers in a specific market segment see Figure 1. They could facilitate communications from salespeople to marketers and vice versa.
They could perform activities falling under the purview of both sales and marketing center column in Figure 1 , or appoint task forces to do so. In this way, these market managers would facilitate a marketing-oriented coordination similar to the technically oriented coordination provided by application engineers.
Typically, integrators have the responsibility for improving the interaction between functional areas but do not have the authority to affect the way work is done.
Similar to the use of cross-functional teams, there is a costbenefit trade-off in using integrators. Integrators may improve sales-marketing integration, but their use involves adding employees, which leads to higher labor costs. Thus, integrators should typically be used to facilitate integration when complex tasks need to be performed such as the launching of a new product. We propose that:P3: Assigning employees to the role of integrators has a positive effect on the degree of sales-marketing integration.
Due to the additional costs involved, this is appropriate when sales and marketing need to work together to undertake complex, novel tasks. CommunicationsOne of the key drivers of cross-functional integration is communication.
25+ SAMPLE Sales and Marketing Plan Templates in PDF | MS Word | Excel
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Peterson and G. Peterson , G. Without sales and marketing working to produce revenue, the firm ceases to exist. This article reviews previous studies that investigate conflict, collaboration, and integration between the sales and marketing functions. Save to Library.
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Co‐ordinating sales and marketing in consumer goods firms
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A sales and marketing plan is an essential business tool that can help your business achieve its sales and marketing objectives. Develop a well-thought sales and marketing plan so you can plot the strategies and action plans that you need to implement within given time periods.
Partner Managed Cloud Provider sales and marketing PDF
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Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed. TM By jurnal doc Posted on September 22, …corporate has a strong influence on the purchase decision at planet computer tasikmalaya. A business organization that has a product to sell always involves sales and marketing.. Examples of market-based assets include customer relationships, channel relationships, and partner relationships. Overall, this study provides a new and broader perspective to managers responsible for the allocation of decision making influence between Marketing and Sales over a range of market-related issues. Given the number of benefits that marketing can bring to different economies across the world Sirgy, M. Since little is known about whether both marketing and sales functions pay off in market-oriented companies, this research analyzes the interaction between market orientation and the departmental power of marketing and sales within the firm.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Homburg and O. Homburg , O. Jensen Published Business Journal of Marketing. The literature is divided on whether differences between the thought worlds of marketing and sales are deleterious or beneficial.
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