Structure And Function Of Nucleic Acids As Cell Constituents PdfBy Pierrette A. In and pdf 23.04.2021 at 15:40 9 min read
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- Nucleic acid
- 2.6: Structure and Function - Nucleic Acids
- Nucleic acid
- Learn About Nucleic Acids and Their Function
Molecular Diagnostics pp Cite as. Chemists and early biochemists determined the essential building blocks of living cells and characterized their chemical nature.
Nucleic acid , naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid , sugars, and a mixture of organic bases purines and pyrimidines. Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell , and, by directing the process of protein synthesis , they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing. DNA is the master blueprint for life and constitutes the genetic material in all free-living organisms and most viruses.
RNA is the genetic material of certain viruses, but it is also found in all living cells, where it plays an important role in certain processes such as the making of proteins. Nucleic acids are naturally occurring chemical compounds that serve as the primary information-carrying molecules in cells. They play an especially important role in directing protein synthesis. Nucleic acids were discovered in by Swiss biochemist Friedrich Miescher.
This article covers the chemistry of nucleic acids, describing the structures and properties that allow them to serve as the transmitters of genetic information. For a discussion of the genetic code , see heredity , and for a discussion of the role played by nucleic acids in protein synthesis, see metabolism. Nucleic acids are polynucleotides—that is, long chainlike molecules composed of a series of nearly identical building blocks called nucleotides.
Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base attached to a pentose five-carbon sugar , which is in turn attached to a phosphate group. Each nucleic acid contains four of five possible nitrogen-containing base s: adenine A , guanine G , cytosine C , thymine T , and uracil U.
A and G are categorized as purines , and C , T, and U are collectively called pyrimidines. Without an attached phosphate group, the sugar attached to one of the bases is known as a nucleoside.
Nucleotides are synthesized from readily available precursors in the cell. The ribose phosphate portion of both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides is synthesized from glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway. The six-atom pyrimidine ring is synthesized first and subsequently attached to the ribose phosphate.
The two rings in purines are synthesized while attached to the ribose phosphate during the assembly of adenine or guanine nucleosides. Finally, a specialized enzyme called a kinase adds two phosphate groups using adenosine triphosphate ATP as the phosphate donor to form ribonucleoside triphosphate, the immediate precursor of RNA. An additional phosphate group from ATP is then added by another kinase to form a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, the immediate precursor of DNA.
During normal cell metabolism, RNA is constantly being made and broken down. The purine and pyrimidine residues are reused by several salvage pathways to make more genetic material. Purine is salvaged in the form of the corresponding nucleotide, whereas pyrimidine is salvaged as the nucleoside.
Nucleic acid Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites.
Richard J. Recipient of Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. See Article History. Portion of polynucleotide chain of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA. The inset shows the corresponding pentose sugar and pyrimidine base in ribonucleic acid RNA. Top Questions. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Load Next Page.
2.6: Structure and Function - Nucleic Acids
Steve Minchin, Julia Lodge; Understanding biochemistry: structure and function of nucleic acids. Essays Biochem 16 October ; 63 4 : — Nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and ribonucleic acid RNA , carry genetic information which is read in cells to make the RNA and proteins by which living things function. The well-known structure of the DNA double helix allows this information to be copied and passed on to the next generation. In this article we summarise the structure and function of nucleic acids. The article includes a historical perspective and summarises some of the early work which led to our understanding of this important molecule and how it functions; many of these pioneering scientists were awarded Nobel Prizes for their work.
observation that they represent a major constituent of the cell. nucleus. That nucleic acids form the chemical basis for the trans-. mission of.
Nucleic acid , naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid , sugars, and a mixture of organic bases purines and pyrimidines. Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell , and, by directing the process of protein synthesis , they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing. DNA is the master blueprint for life and constitutes the genetic material in all free-living organisms and most viruses. RNA is the genetic material of certain viruses, but it is also found in all living cells, where it plays an important role in certain processes such as the making of proteins. Nucleic acids are naturally occurring chemical compounds that serve as the primary information-carrying molecules in cells.
DNA and RNA are nucleic acids that carry out cellular processes, especially the regulation and expression of genes.
Learn About Nucleic Acids and Their Function
Students should be able to explain and apply core concepts of macromolecular structure and function, including the nature of biological macromolecules, their interaction with water, the relationship between structure and function, and frequently encountered mechanisms for regulating their function. The learning goals below are categorized as introductory A , intermediate B and upper C. Macromolecules are made up of basic molecular units. They include the proteins polymers of amino acids , nucleic acids polymers of nucleotides , carbohydrates polymers of sugars and lipids with a variety of modular constituents. These processes may involve multi-protein complexes e. Covalent and non-covalent bonding govern the three dimensional structures of proteins and nucleic acids which impacts function.
In this section, we will examine the structures of DNA and RNA, and how these structures are related to the functions these molecules perform. We will begin with DNA, which is the hereditary information in every cell, that is copied and passed on from generation to generation. The race to elucidate the structure of DNA was one of the greatest stories of 20th century science. Their famous paper, in the April 25, issue of Nature, opened the modern era of molecular biology.
Nucleic acids are the biopolymers , or large biomolecules , essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides , which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar , a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose , the polymer is RNA ribonucleic acid ; if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose , the polymer is DNA deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acids are naturally occurring chemical compounds that serve as the primary information-carrying molecules in cells. They play an especially important role in directing protein synthesis. Nucleic acids are found in abundance in all living things, where they create, encode, and then store information of every living cell of every life-form on Earth.
cleic acid (mRNA) by a RNA polymerase that binds to DNA in a nucleotide Chargaff E () Structure and function of nucleic acids as cell constituents.